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India

Republic of India
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Horizontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes.
Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: "सत्यमेव जयते".
Flag State Emblem
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana" (Bengali)
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"

National song
Vande Mataram
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Capital New Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133°N 77.2083°E / 28.6133; 77.2083
Largest city Mumbai
18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.97500°N 72.82583°E / 18.97500; 72.82583
Official languages Hindi · English
Recognised regional languages
Religion 79.8% Hinduism
14.2% Islam
2.3% Christianity
1.7% Sikhism
0.7% Buddhism
0.4% Jainism
0.9% others
Demonym Indian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Pranab Mukherjee
Mohammad Hamid Ansari
Narendra Modi
Jagdish Singh Khehar
Sumitra Mahajan
Legislature Parliament of India
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
Independence from United Kingdom
• Dominion
15 August 1947
• Republic
26 January 1950
Area
• Total
3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) (7th)
• Water (%)
9.6
Population
• 2016 estimate
1,293,057,000 (2nd)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977 (2nd)
• Density
390.7/km2 (1,011.9/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$8.727 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$6,664 (122nd)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$2.384 trillion (7th)
• Per capita
$1,820 (141st)
Gini (2011) 35.1
medium · 79th
HDI (2014) Increase 0.609
medium · 130th
Currency Indian rupee () (INR)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
DST is not observed
Date format DD-MM-YYYY
Drives on the left
Calling code +91
ISO 3166 code IN
Internet TLD

.in

National symbols
Flag Tiranga (Tricolour)
Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital
Language None
Anthem Jana Gana Mana
Song Vande Mataram
Currency (Indian rupee)
Calendar Saka
Animal Tiger (land)
River dolphin (aquatic)
Bird Indian peafowl
Flower Lotus
Fruit Mango
Tree Banyan
River Ganga
Game Not declared

.in

India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history.Four religionsHinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism–originated in India, whereas Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE, and they also played a part in shaping the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, it became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.


States (1–29) & Union territories (A-G)
1. Andhra Pradesh 10. Jammu and Kashmir 19. Nagaland 28. Uttarakhand
2. Arunachal Pradesh 11. Jharkhand 20. Odisha 29. West Bengal
3. Assam 12. Karnataka 21. Punjab A. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
4. Bihar 13. Kerala 22. Rajasthan B. Chandigarh
5. Chhattisgarh 14. Madhya Pradesh 23. Sikkim C. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
6. Goa 15. Maharashtra 24. Tamil Nadu D. Daman and Diu
7. Gujarat 16. Manipur 25. Telangana E. Lakshadweep
8. Haryana 17. Meghalaya 26. Tripura F. National Capital Territory of Delhi
9. Himachal Pradesh 18. Mizoram 27. Uttar Pradesh G. Puducherry

Government
General information
  • Executive: The President of India is the head of state and is elected indirectly by a national electoral college for a five-year term. The Prime Minister of India is the head of government and exercises most executive power. Appointed by the president, the prime minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the lower house of parliament. The executive branch of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice-president, and the Council of Ministers—the cabinet being its executive committee—headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature; the prime minister and his council are directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament.
  • Legislative: The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. It operates under a Westminster-style parliamentary system and comprises the upper house called the Rajya Sabha ("Council of States") and the lower called the Lok Sabha ("House of the People"). The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body that has 245 members who serve in staggered six-year terms. Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in numbers proportional to their state's share of the national population. All but two of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote; they represent individual constituencies via five-year terms. The remaining two members are nominated by the president from among the Anglo-Indian community, in case the president decides that they are not adequately represented.
  • Judicial: India has a unitary three-tier independent judiciary that comprises the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 24 High Courts, and a large number of trial courts. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the centre; it has appellate jurisdiction over the High Courts. It has the power both to declare the law and to strike down union or state laws which contravene the constitution, as well as to invalidate any government action it deems unconstitutional.
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Wikipedia

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