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Islamic Republic of Pakistan
اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان (Urdu)
Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān
Flag of Pakistan
Emblem of Pakistan
Flag Emblem
Motto: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm
ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu)
"Faith, Unity, Discipline" 
Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah
قومی ترانہ
"The National Anthem"
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green.
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green.
Capital Islamabad
33°40′N 73°10′E / 33.667°N 73.167°E / 33.667; 73.167
Largest city Karachi
24°51′36″N 67°00′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°E / 24.86000; 67.01000
Official languages Urdu
Recognised national languages Urdu
Regional languages Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Saraiki, Balochi, Kashmiri, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Burushaski Yidgha, Dameli, Kalasha, Gawar-Bati, Domaaki
Ethnic groups (2016) 44.68% Punjabis
15.42% Pashtuns
14.1% Sindhis
8.38% Sariakis
7.57% Muhajirs
3.57% Balochis
6.28% Others
Religion 96.4% Islam (Official)
3.6% others
Demonym Pakistani
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Mamnoon Hussain
Nawaz Sharif
Raza Rabbani
Sardar Ayaz Sadiq
Mian Saqib Nisar
Legislature Parliament
National Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
29 December 1930
28 January 1933
23 March 1940
• Dominion
14 August 1947
23 March 1956
• Total
881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi) (36th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
201,995,540 (6th)
• Density
260.8/km2 (675.5/sq mi) (55th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$984.205 billion (26th)
• Per capita
$5,084 (136th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
• Total
$270.961 billion (42nd)
• Per capita
$1,427 (153rd)
Gini (2008) 30.0
HDI (2014) Steady 0.538
low · 147th
Currency Pakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)
Time zone PST (UTC+5b)
Drives on the left
Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk
Fiscal Year GDP growth Inflation rate
2013–14 Increase4.14% 108.5% |
2014–15 Increase4.24% 104.8%
2015–16 Increase4.5% 105.1%
2016–17 Increase4.8%Projected 104.5%

Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70

Pakistan (Listeni/ˈpækstæn/ or Listeni/pɑːkˈstɑːn/), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 200 million people. It is the 36th largest country in the world in terms of area with an area covering 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre-long (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Administrative Division Capital Population
 Balochistan Quetta 7,914,000
 Punjab Lahore 101,000,000
 Sindh Karachi 42,400,000
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar 28,000,000
Flag of Gilgit Baltistan.svg Gilgit–Baltistan Gilgit 1,800,000
 FATA 3,176,331
 Azad Kashmir Muzaffarabad 4,567,982
Proposed Flag of Islamabad Capital Territory.svg Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad 1,151,868
Corporations Headquarters 2012 revenue
(Mil. $)
Pakistan State Oil Karachi 11,570 Petroleum and Gas
Pak-Arab Refinery Qasba Gujrat 3,000 Oil and refineries
Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Lahore 2,520 Natural gas
Shell Pakistan Karachi 2,380 Petroleum
Oil and Gas Development Co. Islamabad 2,230 Petroleum and Gas
National Refinery Karachi 1,970 Oil refinery
Hub Power Co. Hub, Balochistan 1,970 Energy
K-Electric Karachi 1,840 Energy
Rawalpindi 1,740 Oil refinery
Rawalpindi 1,740 Petroleum
Lahore Electric Supply Co. Lahore 1,490 Energy
Pakistan Refinery Karachi 1,440 Petroleum and Gas
Sui Southern Gas Pipelines Karachi 1,380 Natural gas
Pakistan International Airlines Karachi 1,360 Aviation
Engro Corporation Karachi 1,290 Food and Wholesale
Prominent Pakistani Inventions Detail
Ommaya reservoir System for the delivery of drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid for treatment of patients with brain tumours.
(c)Brain One of the first computer viruses in history
Electroweak interaction Discovery led Muslim world's first Nobel Prize in Physics.
Plastic magnet World's first workable plastic magnet at room temperature.
Non-lethal fertilizer A formula to make fertilizers that cannot be converted into bomb-making materials.
Non-Kink Catheter Mount A crucial instrument used in anesthesiology.
Human Development Index Devised by Pakistan's former finance minister, Mahbub ul Haq.
Standard Model Particle physics theory devised part by Pakistan scientist Abdus Salam



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