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Islamic Republic of Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
Flag of Iran
Emblem of Iran
Flag Emblem
استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی
Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi
"Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic"
(de facto)
Anthem: مهر خاوران
Location of Iran
and largest city
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683°N 51.417°E / 35.683; 51.417
Official languages Persian
Recognised regional languages
Religion Official:
Islam (Shia)
Other recognized religions:
Demonym Iranian, Persian
Government de jure:
Islamic Republic
de facto:
Theocratic-republican hybrid; unitary presidential republic subject to a Supreme Leader
Ali Khamenei
• President
Hassan Rouhani
Ali Larijani
Sadeq Larijani
Legislature Islamic Consultative Assembly
c. 678 BC
550 BC
224 AD
1 April 1979
24 October 1979
28 July 1989
• Total
1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi) (17th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
82.8 million (18th)
• Density
48/km2 (124.3/sq mi) (162nd)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$1.459 trillion (18th)
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$412.3 billion (27th)
• Per capita
Gini (2013) 37.4
HDI (2014) Increase 0.766
high · 69th
Currency Rial () (IRR)
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
• Summer (DST)
IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Date format yyyy/mm/dd (SH)
Drives on the right
Calling code +98
ISO 3166 code IR
Internet TLD

Iran (/ɪˈrɑːn/ Listen, also /ɪˈræn/, /ˈræn/;Persian: ایران‎‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] Listen), also known as Persia (US /ˈpɜːrʒə/, UK /ˈpɜːrʃə/), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān [d͡ʒomhuːˌɾiːje eslɒːˌmiːje ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan; to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance.Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic center.


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