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Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)
Flag of Turkmenistan
Emblem of Turkmenistan
Flag Emblem
Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni
State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan

Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)
Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)
and largest city
37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333
Official languages Turkmen
Ethnic groups (2011)
Demonym Turkmen
Government Unitary presidential republic
• President
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
Akja Nurberdiýewa
Legislature Mejlis
30 April 1918
13 May 1925
• Declared state sovereignty
22 August 1990
• Declared independence from the Soviet Union
27 October 1991
• Recognized
26 December 1991
18 May 1992
• Total
491,210 km2 (189,660 sq mi) (53rd)
• Water (%)
• 2014 estimate
5,171,943 (117th)
• Density
10.5/km2 (27.2/sq mi) (221st)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$93.271 billion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$35.398 billion
• Per capita
Gini (1998) 40.8
HDI (2014) Increase 0.688
medium · 109th
Currency Turkmen new manat (TMT)
Time zone TMT (UTC+5)
Drives on the right
Calling code +993
ISO 3166 code TM
Internet TLD .tm
External video
Example of Turkmenistan TV News

Coordinates: 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60

Turkmenistan (Listeni/tɜːrkˈmɛnstæn/ or Listeni/tɜːrkmɛnˈstɑːn/; Turkmen: Türkmenistan/Түркменистан/تۆركمهنيستآن, pronounced [tyɾkmeniˈθːaːn]); formerly known as Turkmenia is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital city Area Pop (2005) Key
Ashgabat City TM-S Ashgabat 470 km2 (180 sq mi) 871,500
Ahal Province TM-A Anau 97,160 km2 (37,510 sq mi) 939,700 1
Balkan Province TM-B Balkanabat  139,270 km2 (53,770 sq mi) 553,500 2
Daşoguz Province TM-D Daşoguz 73,430 km2 (28,350 sq mi) 1,370,400 3
Lebap Province TM-L Türkmenabat 93,730 km2 (36,190 sq mi) 1,334,500 4
Mary Province TM-M Mary 87,150 km2 (33,650 sq mi) 1,480,400 5
Turkmenistan in the list of World Heritage Sites
Image Name Location Notes Date added Type
Cyark merv 3.jpg Ancient Merv Baýramaly, Mary Province a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road 1995 Cultural
KonyeUrgenchMinaret.jpg Köneürgenç Köneürgenç unexcavated ruins of the 12th-century capital of Khwarezm 2005 Cultural
Nisa.jpg Parthian Fortresses of Nisa Bagyr, Ahal Province one of the first capitals of the Parthians 2007 Cultural

  • Brummel, Paul (2006). Bradt Travel Guide: Turkmenistan. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN . 
  • Abazov, Rafis (2005). Historical Dictionary of Turkmenistan. Scarecrow Press. ISBN . 
  • Clammer, Paul; Kohn, Michael; Mayhew, Bradley (2014). Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia. Lonely Planet. ISBN . 
  • Hopkirk, Peter (1992). The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. Kodansha International. ISBN . 
  • Blackwell, Carole (2001). Tradition and Society in Turkmenistan: Gender, Oral Culture and Song. Routledge. ISBN . 
  • Kaplan, Robert (2001). Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. Vintage. ISBN . 
  • Kropf, John (2006). Unknown Sands: Journeys Around the World's Most Isolated Country. Dusty Spark Publishing. ISBN . 
  • Rall, Ted (2006). Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East?. NBM Publishing. ISBN . 
  • Theroux, Paul (28 May 2007). "The Golden Man: Saparmurat Niyazov's reign of insanity.". The New Yorker. 
  • Vilmer, Jean-Baptiste (2009). Turkménistan (in French). Editions Non Lieu. ISBN . 


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