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Persian language

Fārsi written in Persian (Nastaʿlīq script)
Pronunciation [fɒːɾˈsiː]
Native to
Native speakers
45 million (2007) – 60 million (2009)
(110 million total speakers)
Early forms
Standard forms
Official status
Official language in
 Afghanistan (as Dari)
 Tajikistan (as Tajik)
Regulated by
Language codes
ISO 639-1 fa
ISO 639-2  (B)
ISO 639-3 inclusive code
Individual codes:
pes – Western Persian
prs – Dari language (Afghan Persian)
tgk – Tajiki
aiq – Aimaq dialect
bhh – Bukhori dialect
haz – Hazaragi dialect
jpr – Judeo-Persian
phv – Pahlavani
deh – Dehwari
jdt – Judeo-Tat
ttt – Caucasian Tat
Glottolog fars1254
58-AAC (Wider Persian)
 > 58-AAC-c (Central Persian)
Persian Language Location Map1.png
Areas with significant numbers of Persian speakers (including dialects).
Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.svg
  Countries where Persian is an official language.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː]), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family, and the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958 for political reasons), and Tajikistan (officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era for political reasons), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies.

The Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire. Persian is a pluricentric language and its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Persis (modern-day Fars Province), hence the name Persian (Farsi). A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone.


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