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Assyria

Assyrian Empire
2500 BC–612 BC
Overview map of the Ancient Near East in the 15th century BC (Middle Assyrian period), showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream (to the south-east) and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream (to the north-west).
Capital Aššur, Nineveh
Languages
Religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  c. 1975 BC Puzur-Ashur I (first)
 •  1073–1056 BC Ashur-bel-kala (last)
Historical era Mesopotamia
 •  Kikkiya overthrown 2500 BC
 •  Decline of Assyria 612 BC
Succeeded by
Median Empire
Neo-Babylonian_Empire
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
Today part of  Syria Iraq Turkey Iran
Early Period
c. 2600 BC–c. 2025 BC
Capital Aššur
Languages Akkadian language
Religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  c. 2450 BC Tudiya (first)
 •  c. 2025 BC Ilu-shuma (last)
Historical era Bronze Age
 •  Established c. 2600 BC
 •  Disestablished c. 2025 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)
Old Assyrian Empire
Today part of  Iraq
Old Assyrian Empire
circa 2025 BC–circa 1393 BC
Capital Aššur
Languages Akkadian language
Religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  circa 2025 BC Erishum I (first)
 •  circa 1393 BC Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (last)
Historical era Bronze Age
 •  Established circa 2025 BC
 •  Disestablished circa 1393 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Early Assyrian kingdom
Kingdom of Mitanni
Middle Assyrian Empire
Today part of  Iraq
Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
1392 BC–934 BC
Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna Period (14th century BC), showing the great powers of the day: Egypt (orange), Hatti (blue), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (black), Assyria (yellow), and Mitanni (brown). The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in purple.
Capital Aššur
Languages Akkadian
Religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  1365–1330 BC Ashur-uballit I (first)
 •  967–934 BC Tiglath-Pileser II (last)
Historical era Mesopotamia
 •  Independence from Mitanni 1392 BC
 •  Reign of Ashur-dan II 934 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Old Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
911 BC–605 BC
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions.
Capital Aššur 911 BC
Kalhu 879 BC
Dur-Sharrukin 706 BC
Nineveh 705 BC
Harran 612 BC
Languages Akkadian, Aramaic, Sumerian
Religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  911–891 BC Adad-nirari II (first)
 •  612–608 BC Ashur-uballit II (last)
Historical era Iron Age
 •  Reign of Adad-nirari II 911 BC
 •  Battle of Nineveh 612 BC
 •  Fall of Harran 605 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Middle Assyrian Empire
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt
Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)
Elam
Median Empire
Neo-Babylonian_Empire
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
Today part of  Iraq
 Syria
 Turkey
 Egypt
 Saudi Arabia
 Jordan
 Iran
 Kuwait
 Lebanon
 Palestine
 Cyprus
 Armenia
 Israel


Assyria was a major Mesopotamian East Semitic-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East. It existed as an independent state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC in the form of the Assur city-state, until its lapse between 612 BC and 599 BC, spanning the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.

From the end of the seventh century BC to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its successor states arose at different times during the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, a period which also saw Assyria become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East.

Centered on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and the northwestern fringes of Iran), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Making up a substantial part of the greater Mesopotamian "cradle of civilization", which included Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, and Babylonia, Assyria was at the height of technological, scientific and cultural achievements for its time. At its peak, the Assyrian empire stretched from Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea to Iran, and from what is now Armenia and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus, to the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt and eastern Libya.


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