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Roman Republic

Roman Republic
Official name (as on coins):
after c. 100 BC:
Senatus populusque Romanus  (Latin) (SPQR)
("The Senate and People of Rome")
509 BC–27 BC

Roman consul accompanied by two lictors

Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
Capital Rome
Languages Latin (official),
various unofficial spoken in certain places including Etruscan, Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Gallic, Punic, Berber, Iberian
Religion Roman polytheism
Government Republic
 •  509–508 BC Lucius Brutus,
Lucius Collatinus
 •  27 BC Gaius Octavianus,
Marcus Agrippa
Legislature Legislative Assemblies
Historical era Classical antiquity
 •  Overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus following the Rape of Lucretia 509 BC
 •  Caesar proclaimed dictator for 10 years 47 BC
 •  Battle of Actium 2 September 31 BC
 •  Octavian proclaimed Augustus 16 January 27 BC
 •  326 BC 10,000 km² (3,861 sq mi)
 •  200 BC 360,000 km² (138,997 sq mi)
 •  146 BC 800,000 km² (308,882 sq mi)
 •  100 BC 1,200,000 km² (463,323 sq mi)
 •  50 BC 1,950,000 km² (752,899 sq mi)
Currency Roman Republican currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Capitoline Wolf of Roman Kingdom.svg Roman Kingdom
Chimera d'arezzo, fi, 09.JPG Etruscan civilization
Magna Graecia
Symbol of Tanit.png Ancient Carthage
Roman Empire Augustus fist century aureus obverse.png
Today part of

Roman consul accompanied by two lictors

The Roman Republic (Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of civil wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar, which led to the transition from republic to empire.