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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar
César (13667960455).jpg
The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime
Dictator of the Roman Republic
In office
October 49 BC – 15 March 44 BC
Consul of the Roman Republic
In office
1 January 44 BC – 15 March 44 BC
Serving with Mark Antony 
Preceded by C. Caninius Rebilus (Suffect)
and Gaius Trebonius (Suffect)
Succeeded by P. Cornelius Dolabella (Suffect)
and Mark Antony
In office
1 January 46 BC – September 45 BC
Serving with M. Aemilius Lepidus (46 BC)
Preceded by Q. Fufius Calenus
and Publius Vatinius
Succeeded by Q. Fabius Maximus (Suffect)
and Gaius Trebonius (Suffect)
In office
1 January 48 BC – 1 January 47 BC
Serving with P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus
Preceded by C. Claudius Marcellus Maior
and L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus
Succeeded by Q. Fufius Calenus
and Publius Vatinius
In office
1 January 59 BC – 1 January 58 BC
Serving with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus
Preceded by Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer
and Lucius Afranius
Succeeded by L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
and Aulus Gabinius
Personal details
Born 13 July 100 BC
Died 15 March 44 BC (aged 55)
Resting place Temple of Caesar, Rome
Political party Populares
Parents Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta
Religion Roman polytheism

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms.Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.