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Roman Empire

Roman Empire
  • Imperium Romanum  (Latin)
  • Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR)
    Roman Senate and People
  • Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων (Ancient Greek)
    Basileía Rhōmaíōn
27  BC  – 395  AD
395 – 476 (Western)
395 – 1453 (Eastern)
Aureus of Augustus Vexilloid
The Roman Empire in 117 AD, at its greatest extent at the time of Trajan's death (its vassals in pink).
Capital Rome (27 BC – AD 410)

Mediolanum (286–402, Western)
Augusta Treverorum
Ravenna (402–476, Western)
Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern)
Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern)
Syracuse (663–669, Eastern)

Government Mixed, functionally absolute monarchy
 •  27  BC  – AD 14 Augustus (first)
 •  98–117 Trajan
 •  284–305 Diocletian
 •  306–337 Constantine I
 •  379–395 Theodosius I
 •  474–480 Julius Nepos
 •  527–565 Justinian I
 •  976–1025 Basil II
 •  1449–1453 Constantine XI
Legislature Senate
Historical era Classical era to Late Middle Ages
 •  Final War of the
Roman Republic
32–30 BC
 •  Empire established 30–2 BC
 •  Constantinople
becomes capital
 •  Final East West divide 395
 •  Fall of the Western Roman Empire 476
 •  Fourth Crusade 1202–1204
 •  Reconquest of Constantinople 1261
 •  Fall of Constantinople 29 May 1453
 •  25 BC 2,750,000 km² (1,061,781 sq mi)
 •  AD 117 5,000,000 km² (1,930,511 sq mi)
 •  AD 390 4,400,000 km² (1,698,849 sq mi)
 •  25 BC est. 56,800,000 
     Density 20.7 /km²  (53.5 /sq mi)
Currency Sestertius,Aureus, Solidus, Nomisma
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Consul et lictores.png Roman Republic
Western Roman Empire Julius Nepos Tremissis.jpg
Eastern Roman Empire Constantine multiple CdM Beistegui 233.jpg

Mediolanum (286–402, Western)
Augusta Treverorum
Ravenna (402–476, Western)
Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern)
Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern)
Syracuse (663–669, Eastern)

The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum; Classical Latin: [ɪmˈpɛ.ri.ũː roːˈmaː.nũː] Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. The city of Rome was the largest city in the world c. 100 BC – c. 400 AD, with Constantinople (New Rome) becoming the largest around 500 AD, and the Empire's populace grew to an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time). The 500-year-old republic which preceded it was severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict, during which Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively marking the end of the Roman Republic.