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Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa
Flag of Portugal
Coat of arms of Portugal
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: "A Portuguesa"
"The Portuguese"
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

and largest city
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767°N 9.150°W / 38.767; -9.150
Official languages Portuguese
Recognised regional languages Mirandese
Ethnic groups (2011)
Demonym Portuguese
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues
António Costa
Legislature Assembly of the Republic
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
26 July 1139
5 October 1143
23 May 1179
1 December 1640
• Republic
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976
1 January 1986
• Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi) (111th)
• Water (%)
• 2015 estimate
10,341,330 (83rd)
• 2011 census
• Density
115/km2 (297.8/sq mi) (97th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$296 billion (50th)
• Per capita
$28,476 (40th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$204.186 billion (43th)
• Per capita
$19,611 (36th)
Gini (2013)  34.2
HDI (2014) Increase 0.830
very high · 43rd
Currency Euro () (EUR)
Time zone WET (UTC)
• Summer (DST)
Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores use AZOT/AZOST
Antipodes New Zealand and
Pacific Ocean
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +351
ISO 3166 code PT
Internet TLD .pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro), awarding it an official right-of-use. Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.
  3. ^ Before 2002, the escudo.

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa) (Portuguese: [ʁɨ'publikɐ puɾtu'ɣezɐ]) is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe. To the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres (754 miles) long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. The republic also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

The territory of modern Portugal has been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The Pre-Celts, Celts, Phoenicians, Carthaginians and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic and the Suebi Germanic peoples. In 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors and for the following centuries Portugal would be part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as a result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, thus firmly establishing Portuguese independence.