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New Zealand

New Zealand
Aotearoa (Māori)
Blue field with the Union Flag in the top right corner, and four red stars with white borders to the right.
Coat of arms of New Zealand
Flag Coat of arms
Location of New Zealand within the Realm of New Zealand
Location of New Zealand within the Realm of New Zealand
Capital Wellington
41°17′S 174°27′E / 41.283°S 174.450°E / -41.283; 174.450
Largest city Auckland
Official languages
Ethnic groups (2013)
Demonym New Zealander
Kiwi (informal)
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Dame Patsy Reddy
Bill English
Dame Sian Elias
Legislature Parliament
(House of Representatives)
Independence from the United Kingdom
7 May 1856
• Dominion
26 September 1907
25 November 1947
• Total
268,021 km2 (103,483 sq mi) (76th)
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
4,754,800 (123rd)
• 2013 census
• Density
17.5/km2 (45.3/sq mi) (205th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$173.2 billion (67th)
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$169.9 billion
• Per capita
Gini (2014) 33.0
HDI (2014) Increase 0.913
very high · 9th
Currency New Zealand dollar ($) (NZD)
Time zone NZST(UTC+12)
• Summer (DST)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +64
ISO 3166 code NZ
Internet TLD .nz

New Zealand Listeni/njˈzlənd/ (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—that of the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.