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Peanut

Peanut
Arachis hypogaea - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-163.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Dalbergieae
Genus: Arachis
Species: A. hypogaea
Binomial name
Arachis hypogaea
L.
subspecies and varieties
  • subsp. fastigiata Waldron
    • var. aequatoriana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. fastigiata (Waldron) Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. peruviana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. vulgaris Harz
  • subsp. hypogaea L.
    • var. hirsuta J. Kohler
    • var. hypogaea L.
Synonyms
  • Arachis nambyquarae Hoehne
  • Lathyrus esquirolii H. Lév.
Peanut, valencia, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,385 kJ (570 kcal)
21 g
Sugars 0.0 g
Dietary fiber 9 g
48 g
Saturated 7 g
Monounsaturated 24 g
Polyunsaturated 16 g
25 g
Tryptophan 0.2445 g
Threonine 0.859 g
Isoleucine 0.882 g
Leucine 1.627 g
Lysine 0.901 g
Methionine 0.308 g
Cystine 0.322 g
Phenylalanine 1.300 g
Tyrosine 1.020 g
Valine 1.052 g
Arginine 3.001 g
Histidine 0.634 g
Alanine 0.997 g
Aspartic acid 3.060 g
Glutamic acid 5.243 g
Glycine 1.512 g
Proline 1.107 g
Serine 1.236 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(52%)
0.6 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(25%)
0.3 mg
Niacin (B3)
(86%)
12.9 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
(36%)
1.8 mg
Vitamin B6
(23%)
0.3 mg
Folate (B9)
(62%)
246 μg
Vitamin C
(0%)
0.0 mg
Vitamin E
(44%)
6.6 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(6%)
62 mg
Iron
(15%)
2 mg
Magnesium
(52%)
184 mg
Manganese
(95%)
2.0 mg
Phosphorus
(48%)
336 mg
Potassium
(7%)
332 mg
Zinc
(35%)
3.3 mg
Other constituents
Water 4.26 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

The peanut, also known as the groundnut and the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers. It is classified as both a grain legume and, because of its high oil content, an oil crop. World annual production of shelled peanuts was 42 million tonnes in 2014. Atypically among crop plants, peanut pods develop underground rather than aboveground. It is this characteristic that the botanist Linnaeus used to assign the specific name hypogaea, which means "under the earth."

As a legume, the peanut belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae; this is also known as Leguminosae, and commonly known as the bean, or pea, family. Like most other legumes, peanuts harbor symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules. This capacity to fix nitrogen means peanuts require less nitrogen-containing fertilizer and improve soil fertility, making them valuable in crop rotations.

Peanuts are similar in taste and nutritional profile to tree nuts such as walnuts and almonds, and are often served in similar ways in Western cuisines. The botanical definition of a "nut" is a fruit whose ovary wall becomes very hard at maturity. Using this criterion, the peanut is not a true nut, but rather a legume. However, for culinary purposes and in common English language usage, peanuts are usually referred to as nuts.

Cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea) arose from a hybrid between two wild species of peanut, thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. The initial hybrid would have been sterile, but spontaneous chromosome doubling restored its fertility, forming what is termed an amphidiploid or allotetraploid. Genetic analysis suggests the hybridization event probably occurred only once and gave rise to A. monticola, a wild form of peanut that occurs in a few restricted locations in northwestern Argentina, and by artificial selection to A. hypogaea. The process of domestication through artificial selection made A. hypogaea dramatically different from its wild relatives. The domesticated plants are bushier and more compact, and have a different pod structure and larger seeds. The initial domestication may have taken place in northwestern Argentina, or in southeastern Bolivia, where the peanut landraces with the most wild-like features are grown today. From this primary center of origin, cultivation spread and formed secondary and tertiary centers of diversity in Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Over time, thousands of peanut landraces evolved; these are classified into six botanical varieties and two subspecies (as listed in the peanut scientific classification table). Subspecies A. h. fastigiata types are more upright in their growth habit and have shorter crop cycles. Subspecies A. h. hypogaea types spread more on the ground and have longer crop cycles.


Countries
with the largest production of peanuts, 2014

(million tonnes)
Rank Country Production
1  China 15.7
2  India 6.6
3  Nigeria 3.4
4  United States 2.4
5  Sudan 1.9
Total
World
42.4

  • subsp. fastigiata Waldron
    • var. aequatoriana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. fastigiata (Waldron) Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. peruviana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
    • var. vulgaris Harz
  • subsp. hypogaea L.
    • var. hirsuta J. Kohler
    • var. hypogaea L.
  • var. aequatoriana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
  • var. fastigiata (Waldron) Krapov. & W. C. Greg
  • var. peruviana Krapov. & W. C. Greg
  • var. vulgaris Harz
  • var. hirsuta J. Kohler
  • var. hypogaea L.
  • Arachis nambyquarae Hoehne
  • Lathyrus esquirolii H. Lév.
...
Wikipedia

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