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Niacin

Niacin
Kekulé, skeletal formula of niacin
Ball and stick model of niacin
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid
Other names
Nicotinic acid (INN)
Bionic
Vitamin B3
Identifiers
59-67-6 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
3DMet B00073
109591
ChEBI CHEBI:15940 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL573 YesY
ChemSpider 913 YesY
DrugBank DB00627 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.401
EC Number 200-441-0
3340
1588
KEGG D00049 YesY
MeSH Niacin
PubChem 938
RTECS number QT0525000
UNII 2679MF687A YesY
Properties
C
6
NH
5
O
2
Molar mass 123.1094 g mol−1
Appearance White, translucent crystals
Density 1.473 g cm−3
Melting point 237 °C; 458 °F; 510 K
18 g L−1
log P 0.219
Acidity (pKa) 2.0,4.85
Isoelectric point 4.75
1.4936
0.1271305813 D
Thermochemistry
−344.9 kJ mol−1
−2.73083 MJ mol−1
Pharmacology
C04AC01 (WHO) C10AD02 (WHO)
Intramuscular, Oral
Pharmacokinetics:
20–45 min
Hazards
Irritant Xi
R-phrases R36/37/38
S-phrases S26, S36
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 193 °C (379 °F; 466 K)
365 °C (689 °F; 638 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY  (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, is an organic compound with the formula C
6
H
5
NO
2
and, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Pharmaceutical and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin has not been found to be useful in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin but appears to be effective in those not taking a statin.

This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide and nicotinamide ("niacinamide"), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH
2
), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Nicotinic acid and niacinamide are convertible to each other with steady world demand rising from 8,500 tonnes per year in the 1980s to 40,000 in recent years.



  • beer (6 mg per pint, less if filtered)
  • Ovaltine (18 mg)
  • Peanut butter (15 mg)
  • Tofu (0.09 – 1.189 mg per 100g)
  • Soy sauce (0.4 mg)
  • Vegemite (from spent brewer's yeast) (50 mg niacin per 100 grams)
  • Marmite (from spent brewer's yeast) (50 mg niacin per 100 grams)
...
Wikipedia

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