Don't miss the piglix.com special BONUS offer during our Beta-test period. The next 100 new Registered Users (from a unique IP address), to post at least five (5) piglix, will receive 1,000 extra sign-up points (eventually exchangeable for crypto-currency)!

* * * * *    Free piglix.com Launch Promotions    * * * * *

  • Free Ads! if you are a small business with annual revenues of less than $1M - piglix.com will place your ads free of charge for up to one year! ... read more

  • $2,000 in free prizes! piglix.com is giving away ten (10) Meccano Erector sets, retail at $200 each, that build a motorized Ferris Wheel (or one of 22 other models) ... see details

Thiamin

Thiamine
Kekulé skeletal formula of the cation in thiamine
Ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine
Names
IUPAC name
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)- 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride
Other names
Aneurine
Thiamin
Identifiers
59-43-8 YesY
3581326
ChEBI CHEBI:18385 N
ChEMBL ChEMBL1588 YesY
ChEMBL1547 N
ChemSpider 5819 YesY
DrugBank DB00152 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.387
EC Number 200-425-3
318226
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
Interactive image
Interactive image
KEGG C00378 N
MeSH Thiamine
PubChem 6042
UNII X66NSO3N35 YesY
Properties
C12H17N4OS+
Molar mass 265.35 g mol−1
Pharmacology
A11DA01 (WHO)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY  (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Thiamine, thiamin, or vitamin B1 (/ˈθ.əmn/ THY-ə-min), named as the "thio-vitamine" ("sulfur-containing vitamin") is a vitamin of the B complex. First named aneurin for the detrimental neurological effects if not present in the diet, it was eventually assigned the generic descriptor name vitamin B1. Its phosphate derivatives are involved in many cellular processes. The best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. In yeast, TPP is also required in the first step of alcoholic fermentation.

All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, and thus, for humans, it is an essential nutrient. Insufficient intake in birds produces a characteristic polyneuritis. In mammals, deficiency results in Korsakoff's syndrome, optic neuropathy, and a disease called beriberi that affects the peripheral nervous system (polyneuritis) and/or the cardiovascular system. Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less-severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.



  • Dry beriberi is characterized principally by peripheral neuropathy consisting of symmetric impairment of sensory, motor, and reflex functions affecting distal more than proximal limb segments and causing calf muscle tenderness.
  • Wet beriberi is associated with mental confusion, muscular atrophy, edema, tachycardia, cardiomegaly, and congestive heart failure in addition to peripheral neuropathy.
  • Infantile beriberi occurs in infants breast-fed by thiamin-deficient mothers (who may show no sign of thiamine deficiency). Infants may manifest cardiac, aphonic, or pseudomeningitic forms of the disorder. Infants with cardiac beriberi frequently exhibit a loud piercing cry, vomiting, and tachycardia. Convulsions are not uncommon, and death may ensue if thiamine is not administered promptly.
  • Gastrointestinal beriberi is associated with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and lactic acidosis.
  • Inadequate nutritional intake: Alcoholics tend to intake less than the recommended amount of thiamine.
  • Decreased uptake of thiamine from the GI tract: Active transport of thiamine into enterocytes is disturbed during acute alcohol exposure.
  • Liver thiamine stores are reduced due to hepatic steatosis or fibrosis.
  • Impaired thiamine utilization: Magnesium, which is required for the binding of thiamine to thiamine-using enzymes within the cell, is also deficient due to chronic alcohol consumption. The inefficient utilization of any thiamine that does reach the cells will further exacerbate the thiamine deficiency.
  • Ethanol per se inhibits thiamine transport in the gastrointestinal system and blocks phosphorylation of thiamine to its cofactor form (ThDP).
...
Wikipedia

1,000 EXTRA POINTS!

Don't forget! that as one of our early users, you are eligible to receive the 1,000 point bonus as soon as you have created five (5) acceptable piglix.

...