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Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine
|by mouth, IV, IM|
|Bioavailability||3.7% to 5.3%|
|Synonyms||Vitamin B1, aneurine, thiamin|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||265.35 g mol−1|
|3D model (Jmol)|
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it including beriberi and Korsakoff's syndrome. Other uses include maple syrup urine disease and Leigh's disease. It is taken by mouth or by injection.
Side effects are generally few. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis may occur. Thiamine is in the B complex family. It is needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates. As people are unable to make it, thiamine is an essential nutrient. Food sources include whole grains, meat, and fish.
Thiamine was discovered in 1897, isolated in 1926, and first made in 1936. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Thiamine is available as a generic medication and over the counter. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 2.17 USD per one gm vial. In the United States a month of replacement is less than 25 USD. Some countries require its addition to certain foods such as grains.
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