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Democratic Republic of Georgia

Democratic Republic of Georgia
საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა
1918–1921
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls

Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings
Capital Tbilisi
Languages Georgian (official)
Russian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Svan, Mingrelian, Laz
Religion Georgian Orthodox
Government Republic
Chairman
 •  1918 Noe Ramishvili
 •  1918–1921 Noe Zhordania
Historical era Interwar period
 •  Established May 26, 1918
 •  Soviet invasion 11 February 1921
 •  Soviet annexation 25 February 1921
Area
 •  1919 107,600 km² (41,545 sq mi)
Population
 •  1919 est. 2,500,000 
     Density 23.2 /km²  (60.2 /sq mi)
Currency Georgian maneti
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Turkey
Today part of  Georgia
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
 Russia
 Turkey

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; Georgian: საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა Sak’art’velos Demokratiuli Respublika) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia.

The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km² (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km²), and a population of 2.5 million.

The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (Menshevik). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.

After the February Revolution of 1917 and collapse of the tsarist administration in the Caucasus, most power was held by the Special Transcaucasian Committee (Ozakom, short for Osobyi Zakavkazskii Komitet) of the Russian Provisional Government. All of the soviets in Georgia were firmly controlled by the Georgian Social Democratic Party, who followed the lead of the Petrograd Soviet and supported the Provisional Government. The Bolshevist October Revolution changed the situation drastically. The Caucasian soviets refused to recognize Vladimir Lenin's regime. Threats from the increasingly Bolshevistic deserting soldiers of the former Caucasus army, ethnic clashes and anarchy in the region forced Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani politicians to create a unified regional authority known as the Transcaucasian Commissariat (November 14, 1917) and later a legislature, the Sejm (January 23, 1918). On April 22, 1918, the Sejm - Nikolay Chkheidze was the president - declared the Transcaucasus an independent democratic federation with an executive Transcaucasian government chaired by Evgeni Gegechkori and later by Akaki Chkhenkeli.


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Wikipedia

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