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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary
German: Österreich-Ungarn
Hungarian: Ausztria-Magyarország
1867–1918
Civil Ensign Imperial & Royal Coat of arms
Motto
Indivisibiliter ac Inseparabiliter
"Indivisible and Inseparable"
Anthem
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser
"God save Emperor Francis"
The Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1914
Capital Vienna (main capital)
and Budapest
Languages Official:
German, Hungarian
Religion Predominantly Roman Catholicism.
Also Eastern Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Calvinism, Judaism, Lutheranism, and (after 1908) Sunni Islam
Government Constitutional monarchy, ,
Personal union (through dual monarchy)
Emperor-King
 •  1867–1916 Franz Joseph I
 •  1916–1918 Charles I & IV
Minister-President
 •  1867 Friedrich von Beust (first)
 •  1918 Heinrich Lammasch (last)
Prime Minister
 •  1867–1871 Gyula Andrássy (first)
 •  1918 János Hadik (last)
Legislature Imperial Council,
Diet of Hungary
 •  Upper house Herrenhaus,
House of Magnates
 •  Lower house Abgeordnetenhaus,
House of Representatives
Historical era New Imperialism/World War I
 •  1867 Compromise 1 March 1867
 •  Czechoslovak indep. 28 October 1918
 •  State of SCS indep. 29 October 1918
 •  Vojvodina lost to Serbia 25 November 1918
 •  Dissolution 11 November 1918
 •  Dissolution treaties in 1919 and in 1920
Area
 •  1914 676,615 km² (261,243 sq mi)
 •  1918 681,727 km² (263,216 sq mi)
Population
 •  1914 est. 52,800,000 
     Density 78 /km²  (202.1 /sq mi)
Currency Gulden
Krone (from 1892)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Austrian Empire
Republic of German-Austria
Hungarian Democratic Republic
First Czechoslovak Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Banat, Bačka and Baranja
Kingdom of Italy
Today part of
a. ^ Treaty of Saint-Germain signed 10 September 1919 and the Treaty of Trianon signed 4 June 1920.
Linguistic distribution
of Austria–Hungary as a whole
German 24%
----
Hungarian 20%
Czech 13%
----
Polish 10%
Ruthenian 8%
----
Romanian 6%
Croat 5%
----
Slovak 4%
Serbian 4%
----
Slovene 3%
Italian 3%

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and lands represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Nagodba) in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.

Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of the world's great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2 (239,977 sq mi), and the third-most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary also became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatuses for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire.


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