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Second Polish Republic

Republic of Poland
Rzeczpospolita Polska
Flag (After 1927) Coat of arms
Mazurek Dąbrowskiego
Poland Is Not Yet Lost
Location and extent of the
Second Polish Republic in Europe (circa 1930).
Capital Warsaw
Languages Polish (official),
Ukrainian, Yiddish,
Belarusian, Russian
Lithuanian, German
Religion 1931 census:
64.8% Roman Catholic
11.8% Eastern Orthodox
10.5% Greek Catholic
9.8% Jewish
2.6% Protestant
0.5% Other Christian
~0.02% Other
Government Republic
 •  1918–1922 Józef Piłsudskia
 •  1922 Gabriel Narutowicz
 •  1922–1926 Stanisław Wojciechowski
 •  1926–1939 Ignacy Mościcki
Prime Minister
 •  1918–1919 (first) Jędrzej Moraczewski
 •  1936–1939 (last) Felicjan S. Składkowski
Legislature Sejm
 •  Upper chamber Senate
 •  Lower chamber Sejm
Historical era Interwar period
 •  End of World War I 11 November 1918
 •  German invasion 1 September 1939
 •  Soviet invasion 17 September 1939
 •  Fall of Warsaw 28 September 1939
 •  Complete occupation 6 October 1939
 •  1921 387,000 km² (149,422 sq mi)
 •  1931 388,634 km² (150,052 sq mi)
 •  1938 389,720 km² (150,472 sq mi)
 •  1921 est. 27,177,000 
     Density 70.2 /km²  (181.9 /sq mi)
 •  1931 est. 32,107,000 
     Density 82.6 /km²  (214 /sq mi)
 •  1938 est. 34,849,000 
     Density 89.4 /km²  (231.6 /sq mi)
Currency Marka (until 1924)
Złoty (after 1924)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Poland
German Empire
Russian SFSR
Republic of Zakopane
Ukrainian PR
West Ukrainian NR
Komancza Republic
Lemko-Rusyn Republic
Galician SSR
Galicia and Lodomeria
Republic of Tarnobrzeg
Central Lithuania
Belarusian DR
Nazi Germany
Military Administration
Soviet Union
Slovak Republic
Polish Underground State
Polish-govt in exile
Today part of  Poland
 Czech Republic
a. As Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa).

The Second Polish Republic, also known as the Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state. It included substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.