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Texas

State of Texas
Flag of Texas State seal of Texas
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship
State song(s): "Texas, Our Texas"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Official language No official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
Spoken languages Predominantly English;
Spanish spoken by sizable minority
Demonym Texan
Texian (archaic)
Tejano (Usually only used for Hispanics)
Capital Austin
Largest city Houston
Largest metro Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington
Area Ranked 2nd
 • Total 268,581 sq mi
(696,241 km2)
 • Width 773 miles (1,244 km)
 • Length 790 miles (1,270 km)
 • % water 2.5
 • Latitude 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 • Longitude 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
Population Ranked 2nd
 • Total 27,862,596 (2016 est)
 • Density 103.7/sq mi  (40.0/km2)
Ranked 26th
 • Median household income $56,473 (26th)
Elevation
 • Highest point Guadalupe Peak
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
 • Mean 1,700 ft  (520 m)
 • Lowest point Gulf of Mexico
sea level
Before statehood Republic of Texas
Admission to Union December 29, 1845 (28th)
Governor Greg Abbott (R)
Lieutenant Governor Dan Patrick (R)
Legislature Texas Legislature
 • Upper house Senate
 • Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators John Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
U.S. House delegation 25 Republicans,
11 Democrats (list)
Time zones  
 • most of state Central: UTC −6/−5
 • El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson Counties Mountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166 US-TX
Abbreviations TX, Tex.
Website www.texas.gov
Texas state symbols
Flag of Texas.svg
Seal of Texas.svg
Living insignia
Bird Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
Fish Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)
Flower Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)
Insect Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
Mammal Texas longhorn, Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
Reptile Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)
Tree Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)
Inanimate insignia
Food Chili
Motto Friendship
Shell Lightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)
Ship USS Texas
Slogan The Friendly State
Soil Houston Black
Song "Texas, Our Texas"
Sport Rodeo
Other Molecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)
State route marker
Texas state route marker
State quarter
Texas quarter dollar coin
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Texas (/ˈtɛksəs/, local /ˈtɛksz/; Spanish: Texas or Tejas [ˈtexas]) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the south central part of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state flag and on the Texan state seal. The origin of the state name, Texas, is from the word, "Tejas", which means 'friends' in the Caddo language.


Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Texas
Location August (°F) August (°C) January (°F) January (°C)
Houston 94/75 34/24 63/42 17/6
San Antonio 96/74 35/23 63/40 17/5
Dallas 96/77 36/25 57/37 16/3
Austin 97/74 36/23 61/45 16/5
El Paso 92/67 33/21 57/32 14/0
Laredo 100/77 37/25 67/46 19/7
Amarillo 89/64 32/18 50/23 10/–4
Brownsville 94/34 34/24 70/51 21/11
Texas Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2016 52.23% 4,685,047 43.24% 3,877,868
2012 57.15% 4,569,843 41.37% 3,308,124
2008 55.39% 4,479,328 43.63% 3,528,633
2004 61.09% 4,526,917 38.30% 2,832,704
2000 59.30% 3,799,639 38.11% 2,433,746
1996 48.80% 2,736,166 43.81% 2,459,683
1992 40.61% 2,496,071 37.11% 2,281,815
1988 56.01% 3,036,829 43.41% 2,352,748
1984 63.58% 3,433,428 36.18% 1,949,276
1980 55.30% 2,510,705 41.51% 1,881,148
Texas Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1970 1990 2000 2010
White 86.8% 75.2% 71.0% 70.4%
Black 12.5% 11.9% 11.5% 11.9%
Asian 0.2% 1.9% 2.7% 3.8%
Native 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1% 0.1%
Other race 0.4% 10.6% 11.7% 10.5%
Two or more races 2.5% 2.7%
Largest city in Texas by year
Year(s) City
1850–1870 San Antonio
1870–1890 Galveston
1890–1900 Dallas
1900–1930 San Antonio
1930–present Houston
Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Texas
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)
Spanish 29.21%
Vietnamese 0.75%
Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese) 0.56%
German 0.33%
Tagalog 0.29%
French 0.25%
Korean and Urdu (tied) 0.24%
Hindi 0.23%
Arabic 0.21%
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba) 0.15%
Religious affiliation in Texas (2014)
Affiliation % of Texas population
Christian 77 77
 
Protestant 50 50
 
Evangelical Protestant 31 31
 
Mainline Protestant 13 13
 
Black church 6 6
 
Catholic 23 23
 
Mormon 1 1
 
Jehovah's Witnesses 1 1
 
Eastern Orthodox 0.5 0.5
 
Other Christian 1 1
 
Unaffiliated 18 18
 
Nothing in particular 13 13
 
Agnostic 3 3
 
Atheist 2 2
 
Non-Christian faiths 4 4
 
Jewish 1 1
 
Muslim 1 1
 
Buddhist 1 1
 
Hindu 0.5 0.5
 
Other Non-Christian faiths 0.5 0.5
 
Don't know/refused answer 0.5 0.5
 
Total 100 100
 
Preceded by
Florida
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on December 29, 1845 (28th)
Succeeded by
Iowa

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