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Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó de tèbié xíngzhèngqū
Regiões administrativas especiais da República Popular da China
|Largest SAR/city||Hong Kong|
|Languages||Standard Chinese (in Traditional characters), English (in HK), Cantonese (de facto in HK and Macau), Portuguese (in Macau)|
|Special Administrative Regions|
|Government||One country, two systems|
|Fernando Chui Sai On|
|1,135.7 km2 (438.5 sq mi)|
• 2014 estimate
|6,920/km2 (17,922.7/sq mi)|
Hong Kong dollar
|special administrative region(s)|
|Portuguese||regiões administrativas especiais|
|Hanyu Pinyin||tèbié xíngzhèngqū|
|Yale Romanization||dahkbiht hàhngjing kēui|
|Jyutping||dak6bit6 hang4zing3 keoi1|
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Chinese Communist Party.
The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982. Article 31 reads: "The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of the specific conditions".
At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999 pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987 respectively. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the United Nations, and their Basic laws, the Chinese SARs "shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy." There is additionally the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, which is however not established according to Article 31 of the Constitution. Generally, two SARs does not constitute the part of Mainland China by both Chinese and SAR authorities.
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