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State of Eritrea
Flag of Eritrea
Emblem of Eritrea
Flag Emblem
Anthem: Ertra, Ertra, Ertra
Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea
Location of  Eritrea  (dark green)– in Africa  (dark grey)– in the African Union  (dark grey)
Location of  Eritrea  (dark green)

– in Africa  (dark grey)
– in the African Union  (dark grey)

Location of Eritrea
and largest city
15°20′N 38°55′E / 15.333°N 38.917°E / 15.333; 38.917
Official languages None (de jure)
Tigrinya (de facto)
Recognised national languages
Working languages
Ethnic groups (2012)
Demonym Eritrean
Government Single-party presidential system
• President
Isaias Afwerki
Legislature National Assembly
• Dʿmt
c. 980 BC
c. 100 AD
15 September 1952
• De facto State of Eritrea
24 May 1991
• De jure State of Eritrea
24 May 1993
• Total
117,600 km2 (45,400 sq mi) (101st)
• Water (%)
• 2014 estimate
6,380,803 (107th)
• Density
51.8/km2 (134.2/sq mi) (154th)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$9.121 billion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$6.047 billion
• Per capita
HDI (2014) Increase 0.391
low · 186th
Currency Nakfa (ERN)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +291
ISO 3166 code ER
Internet TLD .er

Coordinates: 15°N 39°E / 15°N 39°E / 15; 39

– in Africa  (dark grey)
– in the African Union  (dark grey)

Eritrea (/ˌɛrˈtr.ə/ or /ˌɛrˈtrə/), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands. Its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa), which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.