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Spinach

Spinach
Spinacia oleracea Spinazie bloeiend.jpg
Spinach in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae,
formerly Chenopodiaceae[2]
Subfamily: Chenopodioideae
Genus: Spinacia
Species: S. oleracea
Binomial name
Spinacia oleracea
L.
Spinach, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 97 kJ (23 kcal)
3.6 g
Sugars 0.4 g
Dietary fiber 2.2 g
0.4 g
2.9 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(59%)
469 μg
(52%)
5626 μg
12198 μg
Vitamin A 9377 IU
Thiamine (B1)
(7%)
0.078 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(16%)
0.189 mg
Niacin (B3)
(5%)
0.724 mg
Vitamin B6
(15%)
0.195 mg
Folate (B9)
(49%)
194 μg
Vitamin C
(34%)
28 mg
Vitamin E
(13%)
2 mg
Vitamin K
(460%)
483 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(10%)
99 mg
Iron
(21%)
2.71 mg
Magnesium
(22%)
79 mg
Manganese
(43%)
0.897 mg
Phosphorus
(7%)
49 mg
Potassium
(12%)
558 mg
Sodium
(5%)
79 mg
Zinc
(6%)
0.53 mg
Other constituents
Water 91.4 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia. Its leaves are eaten as a vegetable.

It is an annual plant (rarely biennial) growing to 30 cm (12 in) tall. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular, and very variable in size from about 2–30 cm (1–12 in) long and 1–15 cm (0.4–5.9 in) broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm (0.1–0.2 in) in diameter, maturing into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) across containing several seeds.

Common spinach, S. oleracea, was long considered to be in the family Chenopodiaceae, but in 2003, that family was merged into the family Amaranthaceae in the order Caryophyllales. Within the family Amaranthaceae sensu lato, Spinach belongs to subfamily Chenopodioideae.

The English word "spinach" dates to the late 14th century, and is from espinache (Fr. épinard), of uncertain origin. The traditional view derives it from O.Prov. espinarc, which perhaps is via Catalan espinac, from Andalusian Arabic اسبيناخ asbīnākh, from Arabic السبانخ al-sabānikh, from Persian اسپاناخ aspānākh, meaning purportedly 'green hand', but the multiplicity of forms makes the theory doubtful.


Top spinach producing countries - 2014
Country
Production
(millions of tonnes)
 China
22.1
 United States
0.35
 Japan
0.26
 Turkey
0.21
 Indonesia
0.13
 France
0.12
 Pakistan
0.10
World
24.3
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)

  • 'Savoy' has dark green, crinkly and curly leaves. It is the type sold in fresh bunches in most supermarkets in the United States. One heirloom variety of savoy is 'Bloomsdale', which is somewhat resistant to bolting. Other common heirloom varieties are 'Merlo Nero' (a mild variety from Italy) and 'Viroflay' (a very large spinach with great yields).
  • Flat- or smooth-leaf spinach has broad, smooth leaves that are easier to clean than 'Savoy'. This type is often grown for canned and frozen spinach, as well as soups, baby foods, and processed foods. 'Giant Noble' is an example variety.
  • Semi-savoy is a hybrid variety with slightly crinkled leaves. It has the same texture as 'Savoy', but it is not as difficult to clean. It is grown for both fresh market and processing. 'Tyee Hybrid' is a common semi-savoy.
  • D. Maue; S. Walia; S. Sahore; M. Parkash; S. K. Walia; S. K. Walia (2005). "Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Ready-to-Eat Bagged Salads". American Society for Microbiology meeting. June 5–9. pp. Atlanta.  Abstract
  • Rogers, Jo. What Food is That?: and how healthy is it?. The Rocks, Sydney, NSW: Lansdowne Publishing Pty Ltd, 1990. .
  • Cardwell, Glenn. Spinach is a Good Source of What?. The Skeptic. Volume 25, No 2, Winter 2005. Pp 31–33. ISSN 0726-9897
  • Blazey, Clive. The Australian Vegetable Garden: What's new is old. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers, 1999.
  • Stanton, Rosemary. Complete Book of Food and Nutrition. Australia, Simon & Schuster, Revised Edition, 1995.
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Wikipedia

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