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Flag of Canada
Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)
(English: "From Sea to Sea")
Anthem: "O Canada"
Projection of North America with Canada in green
Capital Ottawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667
Largest city Toronto
Official languages
  • English
  • French
Recognized regional languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary
representative democracy under
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
David Johnston
Justin Trudeau
Beverley McLachlin
Legislature Parliament
House of Commons
Establishment from the United Kingdom
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
April 1, 1999
• Total
9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
• Water (%)
8.92 (891,163 km2 / 344,080 mi2)
• Q4 2016 estimate
36,443,632 (37th)
• 2011 census
• Density
3.41/km2 (8.8/sq mi) (228th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$1.672 trillion (15th)
• Per capita
$46,199 (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$1.532 trillion (10th)
• Per capita
$40,409 (15th)
Gini (2010) 33.7
medium · 110th[8]
HDI (2014) Increase 0.913
very high · 9th
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8)
• Summer (DST)
 (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code CA
Internet TLD .ca
CMA Province Population CMA Province Population
Toronto Ontario 5,583,064 London Ontario 474,786
Montreal Quebec 3,824,221 St. CatharinesNiagara Ontario 392,184
Vancouver British Columbia 2,313,328 Halifax Nova Scotia 390,328
OttawaGatineau OntarioQuebec 1,236,324 Oshawa Ontario 356,177
Calgary Alberta 1,214,839 Victoria British Columbia 344,615
Edmonton Alberta 1,159,869 Windsor Ontario 319,246
Quebec Quebec 0765,706 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 260,600
Winnipeg Manitoba 0730,018 Regina Saskatchewan 210,556
Hamilton Ontario 0721,053 Sherbrooke Quebec 201,890
KitchenerCambridgeWaterloo Ontario 0477,160 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 196,966

Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95

Canada (Listeni/ˈkænədə/; French: [ka.na.dɑ]) is a country in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. About four-fifths of the country's population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, its largest metropolis is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.