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Broccoli

Broccoli
Broccoli and cross section edit.jpg
Species Brassica oleracea
Cultivar group Italica
Origin Italy, more than 2,000 years ago
Broccoli, raw (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 141 kJ (34 kcal)
6.64 g
Sugars 1.7 g
Dietary fiber 2.6 g
0.37 g
2.82 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(4%)
31 μg
(3%)
361 μg
1403 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(6%)
0.071 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(10%)
0.117 mg
Niacin (B3)
(4%)
0.639 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
(11%)
0.573 mg
Vitamin B6
(13%)
0.175 mg
Folate (B9)
(16%)
63 μg
Vitamin C
(107%)
89.2 mg
Vitamin E
(5%)
0.78 mg
Vitamin K
(97%)
101.6 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(5%)
47 mg
Iron
(6%)
0.73 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
21 mg
Manganese
(10%)
0.21 mg
Phosphorus
(9%)
66 mg
Potassium
(7%)
316 mg
Sodium
(2%)
33 mg
Zinc
(4%)
0.41 mg
Other constituents
Water 89.3 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.

The word broccoli comes from the Italian plural of , which means "the flowering crest of a cabbage", and is the diminutive form of brocco, meaning "small nail" or "sprout". Broccoli is often boiled or steamed but may be eaten raw.

Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads, usually green in color, arranged in a tree-like structure branching out from a thick, edible stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species.

Broccoli is a result of careful breeding of cultivated Brassica crops in the northern Mediterranean starting in about the 6th century BC. Since the time of the Roman Empire, broccoli has been considered a uniquely valuable food among Italians. Broccoli was brought to England from Antwerp in the mid-18th century by Peter Scheemakers. Broccoli was first introduced to the United States by Southern Italian immigrants, but did not become widely popular until the 1920s.

There are three commonly grown types of broccoli. The most familiar is Calabrese broccoli, often referred to simply as "broccoli", named after Calabria in Italy. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks. It is a cool season annual crop. Sprouting broccoli has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli sold in southern Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of tiny flower buds. It sometimes, but not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds.

Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage (Capitata Group), cauliflower and Romanesco broccoli (Botrytis Group), kale and collard greens (Acephala Group), kohlrabi (Gongylodes Group), Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera Group), and kai-lan (Alboglabra Group).Rapini, sometimes called "broccoli raab" among other names, forms similar but smaller heads, and is actually a type of turnip (Brassica rapa). Broccolini or "Tenderstem broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and Chinese broccoli. Beneforté is a variety of broccoli containing 2–3 times more glucoraphanin that was produced by crossing broccoli with a wild Brassica variety, Brassica oleracea var villosa.


Major producers of broccoli
(combined with cauliflowers) in millions of tonnes
Country Production
 People's Republic of China
9.1
 India
7.9
 Spain
0.5
 Mexico
0.5
 Italy
0.4
World
22.3

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Wikipedia

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