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Netherlands

Netherlands
Nederland  (Dutch)
Flag of the Netherlands
Coat of arms of the Netherlands
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Je maintiendrai" (French)
"Ik zal handhaven" (Dutch)
"I will uphold"
Anthem: "Wilhelmus" (Dutch)
"'William"
Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Amsterdam
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367°N 4.883°E / 52.367; 4.883
Official languages
  •  • National
  •  • Regional
Recognised
regional languages
Limburgish, Dutch Low Saxon
Ethnic groups (2015)
Demonym Dutch
Sovereign state  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Willem-Alexander
Mark Rutte
Legislature States General
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from Spanish Empire
26 July 1581
30 January 1648
• Kingdom established
16 March 1815
15 December 1954
Area
• Total
41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi) (134th)
• Water (%)
18.41
Population
• 2016 estimate
17,000,059 (65th)
• Density
411.8/km2 (1,066.6/sq mi) (20th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$856.265 billion (27th)
• Per capita
$50,339 (15th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$762.521 billion (17th)
• Per capita
$44,828 (15th)
Gini (2015) Negative increase 26.2
low · 9th
HDI (2014) Increase 0.922
very high · 5th
Currency
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
AST (UTC-4)
• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)
AST (UTC-4)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code
ISO 3166 code NL
Internet TLD .nl, .bq
  1. ^ The official motto is in French. The literal translation into English is "I will maintain"; a better translation, however, is "I will hold firm" or "I will uphold" (namely, the integrity and independence of the territory).
  2. ^ In 1816 the motto was abbreviated to "God zij met ons" (Dutch). (Used on the edges of coins.)
  3. ^ While Amsterdam is the constitutional capital, The Hague is the seat of the government.
  4. ^ West Frisian has official status in Friesland. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised as regional languages by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Papiamento is recognised by the Dutch government in relation to Bonaire, and English in relation to both Sint Eustatius and Saba.
  5. ^ The euro is used in the European part of the Netherlands and replaced the Dutch guilder in 2002. The US dollar is used in the Caribbean Netherlands and replaced the Netherlands Antillean guilder in 2011.
  6. ^ CET and CEST are used in the European Netherlands, and AST is used in the Caribbean Netherlands.
  7. ^ 599 was the country code designated for the now dissolved Netherlands Antilles. The Caribbean Netherlands still use 599–7 (Bonaire), 599–3 (Sint Eustatius) and 599–4 (Saba).
  8. ^ .nl is the common internet top level domain name for the Netherlands. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. .bq is designated, but not in use, for the Caribbean Netherlands.

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

The Netherlands (Listeni/ˈnɛðərləndz/; Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərˌlɑnt]; Frisian: Nederlân) is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of government and parliament. The name Holland is used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands.


Geography and environment
History
Articles
General information
Government
Travel
  •  • National
  •  • Regional
  • The vmbo has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the mbo.
    • MBO ("middle-level applied education"). This form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree. With the MBO certification, a student can apply for the HBO.
  • The havo has 5 grades and allows for admission to the hbo.
    • HBO ("higher professional education"), are universities of professional education (or applied sciences) that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. A HBO degrees gives access to the university system.
  • The vwo (comprising atheneum and gymnasium) has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a (research) university.
    • Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one-, two- or three year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four-year doctoral degree program. Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university.
  • MBO ("middle-level applied education"). This form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree. With the MBO certification, a student can apply for the HBO.
  • HBO ("higher professional education"), are universities of professional education (or applied sciences) that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. A HBO degrees gives access to the university system.
  • Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one-, two- or three year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four-year doctoral degree program. Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university.
  • Zorgverzekeringswet (Zvw), often called "basic insurance", covers common medical care.
  • Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten (AWBZ) covers long-term nursing and care. While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance (basisverzekering), except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium. If you don't take out insurance, you risk a fine. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health – it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions. In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management.
  • Burke, Gerald L. The making of Dutch towns: A study in urban development from the 10th–17th centuries (1960)
  • Lambert, Audrey M. The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands (1985); focus on the history of land reclamation
  • Meijer, Henk. Compact geography of the Netherlands (1985)
  • Riley, R. C., and G. J. Ashworth. Benelux: An Economic Geography of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (1975) online
  • Paul Arblaster. A History of the Low Countries. Palgrave Essential Histories Series New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. 298 pp. .
  • J. C. H. Blom and E. Lamberts, eds. History of the Low Countries (1998)
  • Jonathan Israel. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477–1806 (1995)
  • J. A. Kossmann-Putto and E. H. Kossmann. The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands (1987)
  • Holland.com – English website of the Netherlands tourist office
  • nbtc.nl – Organisation responsible for promoting the Netherlands nationally and internationally
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Wikipedia

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