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The character 永, yǒng, "forever", "permanence"
Stroke order animated (left)
and in color gradation from black to red (right)
The strokes numbered
Where there are multiple numbers in an area, the strokes
overlap briefly and continue from the previous number to the next.
The strokes together, and separated
Sequence numbers and stroke directions in red
|Eight Principles of Yong|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Yǒngzì Bā Fǎ|
|Wade–Giles||Yung3tzu4 Pa1 Fa3|
|Romanization||Yúnsṳ̀ Pat Fap|
|Jyutping||Wing5zi6 Baat3 Faat3|
|Tâi-lô||Íngjī Pat Huat|
The Eight Principles of Yong (Chinese: 永字八法; pinyin: Yǒngzì Bā Fǎ; Japanese: 永字八法/えいじはっぽう, eiji happō; Korean: 영자팔법/永字八法, Yeongjapalbeop; Vietnamese: vĩnh tự bát pháp 永字八法) explain how to write eight common strokes in regular script which are found all in the one character, (pinyin: yǒng, "forever", "permanence"). It was traditionally believed that the frequent practice of these principles as a beginning calligrapher could ensure beauty in one's writing.
|CJK stroke name||Lǐ's name||Additional description|
|1||Cè, (側/侧) "Sideway"||Diǎn, (點/点) "Dot"||Guài Shí, (怪石) "Strange stone"||Tiny dash, speck.|
|2||Lè, (勒) "Bridle"||Héng, (橫) "Horizontal"||Yù Àn, (玉案) "Jade table"||Rightward stroke.|
Nǔ, (弩), "Crossbow";
Nǔ, (努) "Strive"
Shù, (竪 "Erect";
Tiěchǔ, (鐵杵/铁杵) "Iron staff"
|Tiězhù, (鐵柱/铁柱) "Iron pillar"||Downward stroke.|
|4||Tí, (趯) "Jump"||Gōu, (鉤) "Hook"||Xièzhuǎ, (蟹爪) "Pincer of a crab"||Appended to other strokes, suddenly going down or going left only.|
|5||Cè, (策) "Horsewhip"||
Tí, (提) "Raise";
Tiāo, (挑) "Lifting off"
|Hǔyá, (虎牙) "Tiger's tooth"||Flick up and rightwards.|
|6||Lüè, (掠) "Passing lightly"||Wān, (彎/弯) "Bend, curve"||Xījiǎo, (犀角) "Horn of rhinoceros"||A tapering thinning curve, usually concave left (convex outward right) and with fast speed as if skimming.|
|7||Zhuó, (啄) "Pecking"||
Piě, (撇) "Throw away, slant";
Duǎn Piě (短撇) "Short slant"
|Niǎo Zhuó, (鳥啄)/(鸟啄) "Bird pecking"||Falling leftwards (with slight curve).|
|8||Zhé, (磔) "Dismemberment"||
Nà, (捺) "Pressing forcefully";
Pō, (波) "Wave"
|Jīndāo, (金刀) "Golden dao (knife)"||Falling rightwards (fattening at the bottom), where the end point is "as sharp as a knife" (hence the name "Dismemberment").|
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