Don't miss the special BONUS offer during our Beta-test period. The next 100 new Registered Users (from a unique IP address), to post at least five (5) piglix, will receive 1,000 extra sign-up points (eventually exchangeable for crypto-currency)!

* * * * *    Free Launch Promotions    * * * * *

  • Free Ads! if you are a small business with annual revenues of less than $1M - will place your ads free of charge for up to one year! ... read more

  • $2,000 in free prizes! is giving away ten (10) Meccano Erector sets, retail at $200 each, that build a motorized Ferris Wheel (or one of 22 other models) ... see details


All is equal under heaven. Calligraphy by Sun Yat-sen
Chinese name
Chinese 天下
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet thiên hạ
Chữ Hán
Zhuang name
Zhuang Lajmbwn sawndip.png
Korean name
Hangul 천하
Hanja 天下
Japanese name
Kanji 天下
Kana てんか or てんげ or てんが or あめのした

Tianxia (tiānxià/tien-hsia; Chinese: ; literally: "under heaven") is a Chinese word and an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty. In ancient China, tianxia denoted the lands, space, and area divinely appointed to the Emperor by universal and well-defined principles of order. The center of this land was directly apportioned to the Imperial court, forming the center of a world view that centered on the Imperial court and went concentrically outward to major and minor officials and then the common citizens, tributary states, and finally ending with the fringe "barbarians".

The center of this world view was not exclusionary in nature, and outer groups, such as ethnic minorities and foreign people, who accepted the mandate of the Chinese Emperor were themselves received and included into the Chinese tianxia. In classical Chinese political thought, the "Son of Heaven" (Emperor of China) (Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ; Wade–Giles: t'ien1-tzu3), having received the Mandate of Heaven (Chinese: ; pinyin: tiānmìng; literally: "heaven decree"), would nominally be the ruler of the entire world. Although in practice there would be areas of the known world which were not under the control of the Emperor, in Chinese political theory the rulers of those areas derived their power from the Emperor.

The larger concept of tianxia is closely associated with civilization and order in classical Chinese philosophy, and has formed the basis for the world view of the Chinese people and nations influenced by them since at least the first millennium BC. Tianxia has been independently applied by other countries in the East Asian cultural sphere, including Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

  • Mizoguchi Yuzo, et al. Chūgoku Shisō Bunka Jiten 中國思想文化事典, Tokyo University Press, 2001.
  • Hayashiya Tatsusaburō, Nihon no Rekishi 12 - Tenka Ittō 日本の歴史 12 - 天下一統, Chūō Kōron Publishing, 1966.
  • Tamagake Hiroyuki, Nihon Chūsei Shisōshi Kenkyū 日本中世思想史研究, Perikan Publishers. 1998.
  • Mizubayashi Takeshi, et al. Taikei Nihon-shi 2 - Hōshakai-shi 体系日本史 2 - 法社会史, Yamakawa Publishing. 2001.
  • Fujiwara Ri'ichirō, Vetonamu Sho-ōchō no Hensen ヴェトナム諸王朝の変遷, in Iwanami Kōza Sekai Rekishi 12 - Chūsei 6 岩波講座世界歴史 12 中世, Iwanami Bookstore, 1971.
  • Yamauchi Kōichi, Sekai-shi Riburetto 67 - Chōsen kara mita Ka-I Shisō 世界史リブレット 67 朝鮮から見た華夷思想, Yamakawa Publishing, 2003.
  • Sugiyama Masa'aki, Mongoru Teikoku to Daigen urusu モンゴル帝国と大元ウルス, Tokyo University Press, 2004.
  • Takeshi Hamashita, Chōkō Shisutemu to Kindai Ajia 朝貢システムと近代アジア, Iwanami Bookstore, 1997.


Don't forget! that as one of our early users, you are eligible to receive the 1,000 point bonus as soon as you have created five (5) acceptable piglix.