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National anthem


A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are either marches or hymns in style. The countries of Latin America tend towards more operatic pieces, while a handful of countries use a simple fanfare.

A national anthem is usually in the national or most common language of the country, whether de facto or official, there are notable exceptions. Most commonly, states with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem, for instance:

National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier. The oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the Wilhelmus. It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt, but did not become the official anthem until 1932.

The Japanese anthem, Kimigayo, has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period (794–1185) poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880.

In contrast, the music of Qaumi Taranah, Pakistan's national anthem was composed in 1949, preceding its lyrics, which were written in 1952.

The Philippine anthem Lupang Hinirang was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem Filipinas was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics; the current Tagalog version dates to 1962.


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