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Nagorno Karabakh Republic

Republic of Artsakh
Արցախի Հանրապետություն
Artsakhi Hanrapetut'yun
Flag of Nagorno-Karabakh
Coat of arms of Nagorno-Karabakh
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Ազատ ու Անկախ Արցախ (Armenian)
Azat u Ankakh Artsakh  (transliteration)
Free and Independent Artsakh
Location of Nagorno-Karabakh
and largest city
39°52′N 46°43′E / 39.867°N 46.717°E / 39.867; 46.717
Official languages Armeniana
Government Semi-presidential republic
• President
Bako Sahakyan
Ashot Ghulian
Arayik Harutyunyan
Legislature National Assembly
Independence from the Soviet Union
• Declaration
2 September 1991
• Recognition
3 non-UN members
• Total
11,458 km2 (4,424 sq mi)
• 2015 census
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
• Total
$1.6 billion (n/a)
• Per capita
$2,581 (2011 est.) (n/a)
Currency (AMD)
Time zone AMT (UTC+4)
• Summer (DST)
Not observed (UTC+4)
Drives on the right
Calling code +374 47b
Internet TLD .am, .հայ (de facto)
  1. The constitution guarantees "the free use of other languages spread among the population".
  2. +374 97 for mobile phones.

Nagorno-Karabakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun), is an unrecognised republic in the South Caucasus. The region is considered by the UN to be part of Azerbaijan, but is under the control of ethnic Armenian separatists. The NKR controls most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and some of the surrounding area, giving it a border with Armenia to the west, Iran to the south, and the uncontested territory of Azerbaijan to the north and east.

The predominantly Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh was claimed by both the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the First Republic of Armenia when both countries became independent in 1918 after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and a brief war over Nagorno-Karabakh broke out in 1920. The dispute was largely shelved after the Soviet Union established control over the area and created the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR in 1923. During the fall of the Soviet Union, the region re-emerged as a source of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan. In 1991, a referendum held in the NKAO and the neighbouring Shahumian region resulted in a declaration of independence. Large-scale ethnic conflict led to the 1991–1994 Nagorno-Karabakh War, which ended with a ceasefire that left the current borders.


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