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Mongol Empire

Mongol Empire
Ikh Mongol Uls
Nomadic empire
Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294.
Government Elective monarchy;
later also hereditary
Great Khan
 •  1206–1227 Genghis Khan
 •  1229–1241 Ögedei Khan
 •  1246–1248 Güyük Khan
 •  1251–1259 Möngke Khan
 •  1260–1294 Kublai Khan (Nominal)
 •  1333–1368 Toghan Temür Khan (Nominal)
Legislature Kurultai
 •  Genghis Khan proclaims
the Mongol Empire
 •  Death of Genghis Khan 1227
 •  Pax Mongolica 1250–1350
 •  Empire fragments 1260–1294
 •  Fall of Yuan dynasty 1368
 •  Collapse of the
Chagatai Khanate
 •  1206 (Unification of Mongolia) 4,000,000 km² (1,544,409 sq mi)
 •  1227 (Genghis Khan's death) 13,500,000 km² (5,212,379 sq mi)
 •  1294 (Kublai's death) 23,500,000 km² (9,073,401 sq mi)
 •  1309 (Last formal reunification) 24,000,000 km² (9,266,452 sq mi)
Currency Various 
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Khamag Mongol
Khwarazmian Empire
Qara Khitai
Jīn dynasty
Song dynasty
Western Xia
Abbasid Caliphate
Nizari Ismaili state
Kievan Rus'
Volga Bulgaria
Kingdom of Dali
Kimek Khanate
Sultanate of Rum
Chagatai Khanate
Golden Horde
Yuan dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
Timurid Empire
Anatolian Beyliks
Mamluk Sultanate
Kingdom of Poland

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren About this sound listen ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; [mɔŋɡ(ɔ)ɮˈiːŋ ɛt͡sˈɛnt ˈɡurəŋ]; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant and Arabia.

The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under the rule of him and his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire connected the east with the west with an enforced Pax Mongolica allowing trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.


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