Le Corbusier in 1933
October 6, 1887
La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
||August 27, 1965
AIA Gold Medal (1961), Grand Officiers of the Légion d'honneur (1964)
Villa Savoye, Poissy
Villa La Roche, Paris
Unité d'habitation, Marseille
Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp
Buildings in Chandigarh, India
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier (French: [lə kɔʁbyzje]; October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades; he constructed buildings in Europe, Japan, India, and North and South America.
Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM). Le Corbusier prepared the master plan for the city of Chandigarh in India, and contributed specific designs for several buildings there.
On July 17, 2016, seventeen projects by Le Corbusier in seven countries were inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites as "an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement".
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret was born on October 6, 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, a small city in the French-speaking Neuchâtel canton in north-western Switzerland, in the Jura mountains, just 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) across the border from France. It was an industrial town, devoted to the manufacture of watches. (He adopted the pseudonym of Le Corbusier in 1920). His father was an artisan who enameled boxes and watches, while his mother gave piano lessons. His elder brother Albert was an amateur violinist. He attended a kindergarten that used Fröbelian methods.
Like his contemporaries Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier did not have formal academic training as an architect. He was attracted to the visual arts and at the age of fifteen he entered the municipal art school in La-Chaux-de-Fonds which taught the applied arts connected with watchmaking. Three years later he attended the higher course of decoration, founded by the painter Charles L'Eplattenier, who had studied in Budapest and Paris. Le Corbusier wrote later that L'Eplattenier had made him "a man of the woods" and taught him painting from nature. His father took him frequently into the mountains around the town. He wrote later, "we were constantly on mountaintops; we grew accustomed to a vast horizon." His architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusier's earliest house designs. However, he reported later that it was the art teacher L'Eplattenier who made him choose architecture. "I had a horror of architecture and architects," he wrote. "...I was sixteen, I accepted the verdict and I obeyed. I moved into architecture."
Le Corbusier's student project, The Villa Fallet, a chalet in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland (1905)
The "Maison Blanche", built for Le Corbusier's parents in La Chaux-de-Fonds (1912)
Open Interior of the "Maison Blanche" (1912)
The Villa Favre-Jacot in Le Locle, Switzerland (1912)
Corbusier Haus in Weissenhof, Stuttgart, Germany (1927)
Citrohan Haus in Weissenhof, Stuttgart, Germany (1927)
- the Pilotis, or pylon. The building is raised up on reinforced concrete pylons, which allows for free circulation on the ground level, and eliminates dark and damp parts of the house.
- The Roof Terrace. The sloping roof is replaced by a flat roof; the roof can be used as a garden, for promenades. sports or a swimming pool.
- The Free Plan. Load-bearing walls are replaced by a steel or reinforced concrete columns, so the interior can be freely designed, and interior walls can put anywhere, or left out entirely. . The structure of the building is not visible from the outside.
- The Ribbon Window. Since the walls do not support the house, the windows can run the entire length of the house, so all rooms can get equal light.
- The Free Facade. Since the building is supported by columns in the interior, the façade can be much lighter and more open, or made entirely of glass. There is no need for lintels or other structure around the windows.
- In 1937 Le Corbusier was named Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur. In 1945 he was promoted to Officiers of the Légion d'honneur. In 1952 he was promoted to Commandeur of the Légion d'honneur. Finally, on 2 July 1964 Le Corbusier was named Grand Officiers of the Légion d'honneur.
- He received the Frank P. Brown Medal and AIA Gold Medal in 1961.
- The University of Cambridge awarded Le Corbusier an honorary degree in June 1959.
- Place Le Corbusier, Paris, near the site of his on the Rue de Sèvres.
- Le Corbusier Boulevard, Laval, Quebec, Canada.
- Place Le Corbusier in his hometown of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland.
- Le Corbusier Street in the partido of Malvinas Argentinas, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.
- Le Corbusier Street in Le Village Parisien of Brossard, Quebec, Canada.
- Le Corbusier Promenade, a promenade along the water at Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
- Le Corbusier Museum, Sector- 19 Chandigarh, India.
- Le Corbusier Museum in Stuttgart am Weissenhof
- 1923: Villa La Roche, Paris
- 1925: Villa Jeanneret, Paris
- 1928: Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France
- 1929: Cité du Refuge, Armée du Salut, Paris, France
- 1931: Palace of the Soviets, Moscow, USSR (project)
- 1931: Immeuble Clarté, Geneva, Switzerland
- 1933: Tsentrosoyuz, Moscow, USSR
- 1947–1952: Unité d'Habitation, Marseille, France
- 1949–1952: United Nations headquarters, New York City (Consultant)
- 1949–1953: Curutchet House, La Plata, Argentina (project manager: Amancio Williams )
- 1950–1954: Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France
- 1951: Maisons Jaoul, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
- 1951: Buildings in Ahmedabad, India
- 1952: Unité d'Habitation of Nantes-Rezé, Nantes, France
- 1952–1959: Buildings in Chandigarh, India
- 1957: Maison du Brésil, Cité Universitaire, Paris
- 1957–1960: Sainte Marie de La Tourette, near Lyon, France (with Iannis Xenakis)
- 1957: Unité d'Habitation of Berlin-Charlottenburg, Flatowallee 16, Berlin
- 1962: Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
- 1964–1969: Firminy-Vert
- 1967: Heidi Weber Museum (Centre Le Corbusier), Zürich, Switzerland
- 1918: Après le cubisme (After Cubism), with Amédée Ozenfant
- 1923: Vers une architecture (Towards an Architecture) (frequently mistranslated as "Towards a New Architecture")
- 1925: Urbanisme (Urbanism)
- 1925: La Peinture moderne (Modern Painting), with Amédée Ozenfant
- 1925: L'Art décoratif d'aujourd'hui (The Decorative Arts of Today)
- 1931: Premier clavier de couleurs (First Color Keyboard)
- 1935: Aircraft
- 1935: La Ville radieuse (The Radiant City)
- 1942: Charte d'Athènes (Athens Charter)
- 1943: Entretien avec les étudiants des écoles d'architecture (A Conversation with Architecture Students)
- 1945: Les Trois établissements Humains (The Three Human Establishments)
- 1948: Le Modulor (The Modulor)
- 1953: Le Poeme de l'Angle Droit (The Poem of the Right Angle)
- 1955: Le Modulor 2 (The Modulor 2)
- 1959: Deuxième clavier de couleurs (Second Colour Keyboard)
- 1966: Le Voyage d'Orient (The Voyage to the East)
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