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Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
|Era||Vulgar Latin developed into Romance languages, 6th to 9th centuries; the formal language continued as the scholarly lingua franca of Catholic countries medieval Europe and as the liturgical language of the Catholic Church.|
Official language in
Map indicating the greatest extent of the Roman Empire (c. 117 AD) and the area governed by Latin speakers (dark red). Many languages other than Latin were spoken within the empire.
Range of the Romance languages, the modern descendants of Latin, in Europe.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets.
Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine.
|⟨c⟩, ⟨k⟩||[k]||Always hard as k in sky, never soft as in central, cello, or social|
|⟨t⟩||[t]||As t in stay, never as t in nation|
|⟨s⟩||[s]||As s in say, never as s in rise or issue|
|⟨g⟩||[ɡ]||Always hard as g in good, never soft as g in gem|
|[ŋ]||Before ⟨n⟩, as ng in sing|
|⟨n⟩||[n]||As n in man|
|[ŋ]||Before ⟨c⟩, ⟨x⟩, and ⟨g⟩, as ng in sing|
|⟨l⟩||[l]||When doubled ⟨ll⟩ and before ⟨i⟩, as clear l in link (l exilis)|
|[ɫ]||In all other positions, as dark l in bowl (l pinguis)|
|⟨qu⟩||[kʷ]||Similar to qu in quick, never as qu in antique|
|⟨u⟩||[w]||Sometimes at the beginning of a syllable, or after ⟨g⟩ and ⟨s⟩, as w in wine, never as v in vine|
|⟨i⟩||[j]||Sometimes at the beginning of a syllable, as y in yard, never as j in just|
|[jj]||Doubled between vowels, as y y in toy yacht|
|⟨x⟩||[ks]||A letter representing ⟨c⟩ + ⟨s⟩: as x in English axe, never as x in example|
|Close||iː ɪ||ʊ uː|
|Mid||eː ɛ||ɔ oː|
|⟨a⟩||[a]||similar to u in cut when short|
|[aː]||similar to a in father when long|
|⟨e⟩||[ɛ]||as e in pet when short|
|[eː]||similar to ey in they when long|
|⟨i⟩||[ɪ]||as i in sit when short|
|[iː]||similar to i in machine when long|
|⟨o⟩||[ɔ]||as o in sort when short|
|[oː]||similar to o in holy when long|
|⟨u⟩||[ʊ]||similar to u in put when short|
|[uː]||similar to u in true when long|
|⟨y⟩||[ʏ]||as in German Stück when short (or as short u or i)|
|[yː]||as in German früh when long (or as long u or i)|
|Tense||1st-Person Singular||2nd-Person Singular||3rd-Person Singular||1st-Person Plural||2nd-Person Plural||3rd-Person Plural|
|Future||-bō, -am||-bis, -ēs||-bit, -et||-bimus, -ēmus||-bitis, -ētis||-bunt, -ent|
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