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ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence / SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated on behalf of the five signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement—Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, also known as the Five Eyes.
The ECHELON program was created in the late 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War, and was formally established in 1971.
By the end of the 20th century, the system referred to as "ECHELON" had allegedly evolved beyond its military and diplomatic origins, to also become "…a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications."
The European Parliament's Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System stated, "It seems likely, in view of the evidence and the consistent pattern of statements from a very wide range of individuals and organisations, including American sources, that its name is in fact ECHELON, although this is a relatively minor detail". The U.S. intelligence community uses many code names (see, for example, CIA cryptonym).
Former NSA employee Margaret Newsham claims that she worked on the configuration and installation of software that makes up the ECHELON system while employed at Lockheed Martin, from 1974 to 1984 in Sunnyvale, California, in the United States, and in Menwith Hill, England, in the UK. At that time, according to Newsham, the code name ECHELON was NSA's term for the computer network itself. Lockheed called it P415. The software programs were called SILKWORTH and SIRE. A satellite named VORTEX intercepted communications. An image available on the internet of a fragment apparently torn from a job description shows Echelon listed along with several other code names.
|Operated by the United States|
|Brazil||Brasília, Federal District||SCS|
|Germany||Bad Aibling, Munich||GARLICK|
|Japan||Misawa, Tōhoku region||LADYLOVE|
|United Kingdom||Menwith Hill, Harrogate||MOONPENNY|
|United States||Sugar Grove, West Virginia||TIMBERLINE|
|Sábana Seca, Puerto Rico||CORALINE|
|Not operated by the United States (2nd party)|
|New Zealand||Waihopai, Blenheim||IRONSAND|
|United Kingdom||Bude, Cornwall||CARBOY|
|Cyprus||Ayios Nikolaos Station||SOUNDER|
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