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Battle of Chaldiran

Battle of Chaldiran
Part of the Ottoman–Persian Wars
Sekumname1525 Chaldiran battle.jpg
Battle of Chaldiran
Date 23 August 1514
Location Chaldiran, near Khoy, northwestern Iran
Result Decisive Ottoman victory
Political stalemate
Ottomans annex for the first time Eastern Anatolia and parts of Mesopotamia from the Safavids, as well as briefly what is modern-day northwestern Iran.
Belligerents
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Safavid dynasty
Commanders and leaders
Ottoman Empire Sultan Selim I
Ottoman Empire Hasan Pasha
Shah Ismail I  (WIA)
Abd al-Baqi Yazdi  
Husayn Beg Shamlu  
Saru Pira Ustajlu  
Durmish Khan Shamlu
Nur-Ali Khalifa
Muhammad Khan Ustajlu  
Seyid Sadraddin
Strength
60,000
or 100,000
100-150 cannon
40,000
or 55,000
or 80,000
Casualties and losses
Heavy losses
or less than 2,000
Heavy losses
or approximately 5,000

Coordinates: 39°05′19.87″N 44°19′37.19″E / 39.0888528°N 44.3269972°E / 39.0888528; 44.3269972

The Battle of Chaldiran (Persian: جنگ چالدران‎‎; Turkish: Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire. As a result, the Ottomans annexed eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq from Safavid Iran for the first time. It marked the first Ottoman expansion into eastern Anatolia, and the halt of the Safavid expansion to the west. Despite the Iranians briefly reconquering the area over the course of the centuries, the battle marked the first event that would eventually, through many wars and treaties later, lead to its permanent conquest, until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire centuries later. By the Chaldiran war the Ottomans also gained temporary control of northwestern Iran. The battle, however, was just the beginning of 41 years of destructive war, which only ended in 1555 with the Treaty of Amasya. Though Mesopotamia and Eastern Anatolia (Western Armenia) were eventually taken back by the Safavids under the reign of king Abbas I (r. 1588–1629), they would be permanently lost to the Ottomans by the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab.


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