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Antonia Tryphaena


Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena (her name in Greek: η Άντωνία Τρύφαινα or Τρυφαίνη, 10 BC - 55) was a Princess of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace.

Tryphaena was the only known daughter and the youngest child of Roman client rulers Polemon Pythodoros and Pythodorida of Pontus. Her elder brothers were Zenon, also known as Artaxias III, who became Roman king of Armenia and Polemon II of Pontus, who would succeed her mother and became the last client ruler of Pontus.

She was of Anatolian Greek and Roman heritage. Her paternal grandfather was Zenon, a prominent orator and aristocrat, who had been an ally to Mark Antony. Her maternal grandparents were the wealthy Greek friend of the late Roman Triumvir Pompey Pythodoros of Tralles, and Antonia.

Through her maternal grandmother she was a direct descendant of Mark Antony and his second wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. Antony and Antonia were first paternal cousins. Her name reflects her descent from the triumvir. She was Antony’s third great grandchild and his first great granddaughter. The only other female descendant of Antony‘s, who bears the name ‘Antonia’, is Claudia Antonia, a Roman princess and the first daughter of Roman Emperor Claudius. Her second name Tryphaena is a name of ancient Greek origin and this name was associated with the Greek Queens and Princesses of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Tryphaena wasn’t a blood relative of the Ptolemaic dynasty.


Antonia Tryphaena
Born: 10 BC Died: 55
Preceded by
Rhescuporis II
Co-ruler of Thrace
with Rhoemetalces II

18 –38
Succeeded by
Rhoemetalces III and Pythodoris II

Άντωνία Τρύφαινα Βασιλέως Πολέμωνος καί Βα[σιλίσ]σης Πυθοδωρίδος Θυγάτηρ
Antonia Tryphaena, daughter of King Polemon and of Queen Pythodoris
  • A son, Rhoemetalces II, he was named after his paternal grandfather and ruled with Tryphaena from when his father died in 18 until his death in 38.
  • A daughter, Gepaepyris, she married the Roman Client King Tiberius Julius Aspurgus of the Bosporan Kingdom.
  • A son, Cotys IX, he was the namesake of his father. He became Roman Client King of Lesser Armenia from 38 to until at least 47.
  • A daughter, Pythodoris II or Pythodorida II. She was named after her maternal grandparents and her paternal grandmother. In 38, after the death of Rhoemetalces II, Tryphaena abdicated the throne at the request of Roman Emperor Caligula. Pythodoris II married her second paternal cousin Rhoemetalces III and they ruled Thrace as Roman Client Rulers from 38 until 46.
  • Pythodoris is another form of the name Pythodorida.
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Wikipedia

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