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State of Illinois
Flag of Illinois State seal of Illinois
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Land of Lincoln; The Prairie State
Motto(s): State sovereignty, national union
Map of the United States with Illinois highlighted
Official language English
Spoken languages English (80.8%)
Spanish (14.9%)
Other (5.1%)
Demonym Illinoisan
Capital Springfield
Largest city  Chicago
Largest metro Chicago metropolitan area Chicagoland
Area Ranked 25th
 • Total 57,914 sq mi
(149,932 km2)
 • Width 210 miles (338 km)
 • Length 390 miles (628 km)
 • % water 3.99
 • Latitude 36° 58′ N to 42° 30′ N
 • Longitude 87° 30′ W to 91° 31′ W
Population Ranked 5th
 • Total 12,801,539 (2016 est)
 • Density 232/sq mi  (89.4/km2)
Ranked 12th
 • Median household income $60,413 (19th)
 • Highest point Charles Mound
1,235 ft (376.4 m)
 • Mean 600 ft  (180 m)
 • Lowest point Confluence of Mississippi River and Ohio River
280 ft (85 m)
Before statehood Illinois Territory
Admission to Union December 3, 1818 (21st)
Governor Bruce Rauner (R)
Lieutenant Governor Evelyn Sanguinetti (R)
Legislature General Assembly
 • Upper house Senate
 • Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Dick Durbin (D)
Tammy Duckworth (D)
U.S. House delegation 11 Democrats, 7 Republicans (list)
Time zone Central: UTC -6/-5
ISO 3166 US-IL
Abbreviations IL, Ill.
Illinois state symbols
Flag of Illinois.svg
Seal of Illinois.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Eastern tiger salamander
Bird Northern cardinal
Butterfly Monarch butterfly
Fish Bluegill
Flower Violet
Grass Big bluestem
Mammal White-tailed deer
Reptile Painted turtle
Tree White oak
Inanimate insignia
Dance Square dance
Food Gold Rush Apple, popcorn
Fossil Tully monster
Mineral Fluorite
Motto State sovereignty, national union
Slogan "Land of Lincoln"
Soil Drummer silty clay loam
Song Illinois
State route marker
Illinois state route marker
State quarter
Illinois quarter dollar coin
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols

Illinois (Listeni/ˌɪlˈnɔɪ/ IL-i-NOY) is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 5th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, and is often noted as a microcosm of the entire country. The word "Illinois" comes from the Algonquin word for "tribe of superior men". With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base and is a major transportation hub. The Port of Chicago connects the state to other global ports from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway. For decades, O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports. Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics.



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