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Mathe Forum Schule und Studenten
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This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Dietary supplements
piglix posted in Food & drink by Galactic Guru
   
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Anti-energy drinks


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Sports nutrition and bodybuilding supplement companies


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Vitamins


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Wikipedia
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Dietary supplement


A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.

Supplements as generally understood include vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids, among other substances. U.S. authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they may be classified as drugs or other products.

There are more than 50,000 dietary supplements available. More than half of the U.S. adult population (53% – 55%) consume dietary supplements with most common ones being multivitamins.

These products are not intended to prevent or treat any disease and in some circumstances are dangerous, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health. For those who fail to consume a balanced diet, the agency says that certain supplements "may have value."

Most supplements should be avoided, and usually people should not eat micronutrients except people with clearly shown deficiency. Those people should first consult a doctor. An exception is vitamin D, which is recommended in Nordic countries due to weak sunlight.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), dietary supplements are products which are not pharmaceutical drugs, food additives like spices or preservatives, or conventional food, and which also meet any of these criteria:

In the United States, the FDA has different monitoring procedures for substances depending on whether they are presented as drugs, food additives, food, or dietary supplements. Dietary supplements are eaten or taken by mouth, and are regulated in United States law as a type of food rather than a type of drug. Like food and unlike drugs, no government approval is required to make or sell dietary supplements; the manufacturer checks the safety of dietary supplements but the government does not; and rather than requiring risk–benefit analysis to prove that the product can be sold like a drug, risk–benefit analysis is only used to petition that food or a dietary supplement is unsafe and should be removed from market.



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Wikipedia
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ACES (nutritional supplement)


Antioxidant supplements with varying amounts of carotene(s) for (pro) vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and Selenium are known by the acronym, ACES. The commercial ACES formulas are a first generation, high potency, combined antioxidant that vary in component concentrations, specific components or source, and their ratio according to manufacturer and are available as both tablet and capsule. Vitamin supplementation will help those suffering from malnutrition, which in healthy individuals can be harmful, still obtaining the nutrients from fruit and vegetables instead is recommended, as supplementation is not proven to have any effectiveness in reducing occurrence of chronic disease.

Popularly known as "ACES" in the 1980s during a period of rapid commercial growth and public awareness, these formulas have frequently expanded and differentiated by adding minor amounts other antioxidants such as lipoic acid, pycnogenol, coenzyme Q-10, N-acetyl cysteine, as well as other nutrients that again vary with manufacturer, and are often simply referred to as super antioxidants or a branded, proprietary trade name.

Beta-carotene, one of over 600 carotenoids, has been the most common ingredient for vitamin A activity in ACES formulas. Ascorbic acid and ascorbates are the common ingredients to deliver vitamin C activity. Vitamin E content has commonly varied among d,l-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate), d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, and d-alpha-tocopherol. Selenium content has been delivered as selenate, selenium containing nutritional yeast and selenium containing organic forms such as L-Selenomethionine and L-selenium-methylselenocysteine, again varying with manufacturer. More recent ACES formulas may use mixed natural carotene sources that include other carotenes such as zeaxanthin, alpha carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein and lycopene. Mixed tocopherols with varied proportions of R,R,R-alpha-tocopherol, R,R,R-beta-tocopherol, R,R,R-gamma-tocopherol and R,R,R-delta-tocopherol are other suitable sources of vitamin E content in ACES formulas.



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Wikipedia
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Acetylcarnitine


imageAcetylcarnitine

Acetyl-L-carnitine, ALCAR or ALC, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. It is naturally produced by the body, although it is often taken as a dietary supplement. Acetylcarnitine is broken down in the blood by plasma esterases to carnitine which is used by the body to transport fatty acids into the for breakdown.

Carnitine is both a nutrient and made by the body as needed; it serves as a substrate for important reactions in which it accepts and gives up acyl groups. When it accepts one acyl-group, acetyl-L-carnitine is the product; other acylcarnitines include propionyl-L-carnitine, isovaleryl-L-carnitine, butyryl-L-carnitine, hydroxybutyryl-L-carnitine, hexanoyl-L-carnitine, ortanoyl-L-carnitine, decanoyl-L-carnitine, palmitoyl-L-carnitine, stearoyl-L-carnitine, and acetoacetyl-L-carnitine.

Acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) is the most abundant naturally occurring derivative and is formed in the reaction:

where the acetyl group displaces the hydrogen atom in the central hydroxyl group of carnitine. Coenzyme A (CoA) plays a key role in the Krebs cycle in , which is essential for the production of ATP, which powers many reactions in cells; acetyl-CoA is the primary substrate for the Krebs cycle, once it is de-acetylated, it must be re-charged with an acetyl-group in order for the Krebs cycle to keep working.

Most cell types appear to have transporters to import carnitine and export acyl-carnitines, which seems to be a mechanism to dispose of longer-chain moieties; however many cell types can also import ALCAR.

Within cells, carnitine plays a key roles in importing acyl-coA into mitochondria; the acyl-group of the acyl-CoA is transferred to carnitine, and the acyl-carnitine is imported through both mitochondrial membranes before being transferred to a coA molecule, which is then beta oxidized to acetyl-CoA. A separate set of enzymes and transporters also plays a buffering role by eliminating acetyl-CoA from inside mitochondria created by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that is in excess of its utilization by the Krebs cycle; carnitine accepts the acetyl moiety and becomes ALCAR, which is then transported out of the mitochondria and into the cytosol, leaving free coA inside the mitochondria ready to accept new import of fatty acid chains. ALCAR in the cytosol can also form a pool of acetyl-groups for coA, should the cell need it.



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