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Pax Americana (Latin for "American Peace", modeled after Pax Britannica, Pax Mongolica, and Pax Romana) is a term applied to the concept of relative peace in the Western Hemisphere and later the world as a result of the preponderance of power enjoyed by the United States beginning around the middle of the 20th century and continuing to this day. Although the term finds its primary utility in the latter half of the 20th century, it has been used with different meanings and eras, such as the post-Civil War era in North America, and regionally in the Americas at the start of the 20th century.
Pax Americana is primarily used in its modern connotations to refer to the peace among great powers established after the end of World War II in 1945, also called the Long Peace. In this modern sense, it has come to indicate the military and economic position of the United States in relation to other nations. For example, the Marshall Plan, which spent $13 billion to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, has been seen as "the launching of the pax americana."
The Latin term derives from Pax Romana of the Roman Empire. The term is most notably associated with Pax Britannica under the British Empire, which served as the global hegemon and constabulary from the late 18th century until the early 20th century.
The first articulation of a Pax Americana occurred after the end of the American Civil War with reference to the peaceful nature of the North American geographical region, and was abeyant at the commencement of the First World War. Its emergence was concurrent with the development of the idea of American exceptionalism. This view holds that the U.S. occupies a special niche among developed nations in terms of its national credo, historical evolution, political and religious institutions, and unique origins. The concept originates from , who asserted that the then-50-year-old United States held a special place among nations because it was a country of immigrants and the first modern democracy. From the establishment of the United States after the American Revolution until the Spanish–American War, the foreign policy of the United States had a regional, instead of global, focus. The Pax Americana, which the Union enforced upon the states of central North America, was a factor in the United States' national prosperity. The larger states were surrounded by smaller states, but these had no anxieties: no standing armies to require taxes and hinder labor; no wars or rumors of wars that would interrupt trade; there is not only peace, but security, for the Pax Americana of the Union covered all the states within the federal constitutional republic. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first time the phrase appeared in print was in the August 1894 issue of Forum: "The true cause for exultation is the universal outburst of patriotism in support of the prompt and courageous action of President Cleveland in maintaining the supremacy of law throughout the length and breadth of the land, in establishing the pax Americana."
Overseas interventions of the United States, Timeline of United States military operations, United States withdrawal from the United Nations, Hyperpower
Truman Doctrine, Reagan Doctrine, Clinton Doctrine, Bush Doctrine, Powell Doctrine, Wolfowitz Doctrine, Obama Doctrine,
- Early concepts
Civilizing mission, Platt Amendment, Holy Alliance, Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907)
- Modern concepts
Bretton Woods system, Cold War (1985–1991), Neoconservatism, Anti-communism ; New World Order
Messianic democracy, Peace and Truce of God, 9/11 conspiracy theories, Pan Sahel Initiative, American Dream, Global Nightmare, Documentary film Pax Americana and the Weaponization of Space
Ankerl, Guy (2000). "Global communication without universal civilization". Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese and Western. INU Societal Research. 1. Geneva: INU Press. pp. 256–332. ISBN .
Brown, Michael E. (2000). America's Strategic Choices. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Burton, Paul J. "Pax Romana/Pax Americana: Views of the “New Rome” from “Old Europe,” 2000–2010." International Journal of the Classical Tradition 20.1-2 (2013): 15-40.
- Clarke, Peter. The last thousand days of the British empire: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the birth of the Pax Americana (Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2010)
Gottlieb, Gidon (1993). Nation against State: A New Approach to Ethnic Conflicts and the Decline of Sovereignty. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.
Hull, William I. (1915). The Monroe Doctrine: National or International. New York: G.P. Putnam.
Kahrstedt, Ulrich (1920). Pax Americana; ein historische Betrachtung am Wendepunkte der europäischen Geschichte [Pax Americana, a historical look at the turning points in European history] (in German). Munich: Drei Masken Verlag.
Kiernan, V. G. (2005). America, the New Imperialism: From White Settlement to World Hegemony. London: Verso.
Kupchan, Charles (2002). The End of the American Era: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the 21st-century. New York: A. Knopf.
- Layne, Christopher. "This Time It’s Real: The End of Unipolarity and the Pax Americana." International Studies Quarterly (2012) 56#1 pp: 203-213.
LaFeber, Walter (1998). The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860-1898. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Louis, William Roger (2006). "The Pax Americana: Sir Keith Hancock, The British Empire, and American Expansion". Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez and Decolonization: Collected Essays. London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 999+.
- Mee, Charles L. The Marshall Plan: The launching of the pax americana (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984)
- Narlikar, Amrita, and Rajiv Kumar. "From Pax Americana to Pax Mosaica? Bargaining over a New Economic Order." The Political Quarterly (2012) 83#2 pp: 384-394.
Nye, Joseph S. (1990). Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books.
Snow, Francis Haffkine (1921). "American as a World Tyrant: A German Historian's Attempt to Prove That Europe is Becoming a Serf of the United States". Current History. New York Times Co. 13.
- Steve Fine, Pax Americana. neighborsforpeaceandjustice.com, October 2002 (broken)
- Richard M. Ebeling, "The Dangers and Costs of Pax Americana. December 2002.
- Graham Barrett, "Imagining the Pax Americana", The Age, April 17, 2003
- Immanuel Wallerstein, "The Eagle Has Crash Landed". The Magazine of Global Issues, Economics, and Ideas, July–August 2002.
- John Bellamy Foster and Robert W. McChesney, The American Empire: Pax Americana or Pox Americana? Monthly Review, September 2004.
- Richard B. Du Boff, "U.S. Hegemony: Continuing Decline, Enduring Danger"
- Gail Russell Chaddock, "A Bush vision of Pax Americana". Christian Science Monitor.
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