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Parliament of Jordan

Parliament of Jordan
مجلس الأمة
Majlis Al-Umma
18th Parliament
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Houses Senate
House of Representatives
Term limits
4 years
History
Founded January 1, 1952 (1952-01-01)
Leadership
Faisal Al-Fayez, Independent
Since 28 September 2016
Atef Tarawneh, Independent
Since 7 November 2016
Structure
Seats 195 members:
65 senators
130 representatives
Senate makeup
Senate political groups
House of Representatives makeup
House of Representatives political groups
Elections
Appointed by the King
House of Representatives voting system
Open list proportional representation (15 seats reserved for women, nine for Christians, and three for Chechens and Circassians)
House of Representatives last election
20 September 2016
House of Representatives next election
2020 or earlier
Meeting place
Al-Abdali, Amman
Website
www.parliament.jo

The Parliament of Jordan (Arabic: مجلس الأمة‎‎ Majlis Al-Umma) is the bicameral Jordanian national assembly. Established by the 1952 Constitution, the legislature consists of two houses: the Senate ("Majlis Al-Aayan") and the House of Representatives ("Majlis Al-Nuwaab").

The Senate has 65 members, all of whom are directly appointed by the King, while the House of Representatives has 130 elected members, with nine seats reserved for Christians, three are for Circassian and Chechen minorities, and fifteen for women. The members of both houses serve for four-year terms.

As a developing constitutional monarchy, Jordan has survived the trials and tribulations of Middle Eastern politics. The Jordanian public has experienced limited democracy since gaining independence in 1946 however the population has not suffered as others have under dictatorships imposed by some Arab regimes. The 1952 Constitution provided for citizens of Jordan to form and join political parties. Such rights were suspended in 1967 when a state of emergency was declared and martial law and suspension of Parliament, continuing until it was repealed in 1989.

In 1988 King Hussein cut political ties with the West Bank following the Israeli occupation. Subsequently, civil unrest followed with Prime Minister al-Rifa’i alleged to have used heavy-handed tactics against the population which resulted in riots in April 1989. After the riots had subsided the King fired al-Rifa’i and announced elections for later that year. The King’s action to re-convene parliament elections was considered a significant move forward in enabling the Jordanian public to have greater freedoms and democracy, this has been labelled by the think tank Freedom House as, “the Arab World's most promising experiment in political liberalization and reform”.

The resumption of the parliamentary election was reinforced by new laws governing the media and publishing as well as fewer restrictions on freedoms of expression. Following the legalization of political parties in 1992, 1993 saw the first multi-party elections held since 1956. The country is now one of the most politically open in the Middle East permitting opposition parties such as the Islamic Action Front (IAF), the political wing of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood. The influence of the IAF significantly reduced in 2007 when their parliamentary representation fell from seventeen to six. The IAF boycotted the 2011 and 2013 elections in protest of the one voice electoral system. The Monarch still holds the true levers of power, appointing members of the House of Senate and has the right to replace the prime minister, a step that King Abdullah II of Jordan took in April 2005.


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Wikipedia

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