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The Jordanian Communist Party (JCP; Arabic: الحزب الشیوعی الاردنی, Hizb al-Shuyu'iyah al-Urduni) is a communist party in Jordan, founded in 1948. Its current general secretary is Dr. Munir Hamarana. It publishes al-Jamahir (الجماهير, 'The Masses').
In June 1951, the Palestinian communists in the West Bank, then organized in the Palestinian National Liberation League, joined JCP. During the years to come the main stronghold of the party was in the West Bank, and the party leadership was predominantly Palestinian. Prior to the merger into JCP, the Palestinian communists had opposed the annexation of the West Bank by Jordan. However, in 1951, that policy was reversed and JCP recognized the West Bank as part of Jordan.
The main leaders during the initial period were Fu'ad Nassar, Fahmi al-Salfiti and Fa'iq Warrad. The party gained influence amongst urban intellectuals in Nablus and Jerusalem. In particular, the party developed a strong position in the Salfit village outside of Nablus, from where many prominent JCP leaders hailed. Other areas in which the party was active were Ramallah, Bethlehem and amongst refugees near Jericho. The main party organ was al-Muqawamah ash-Shabiya (المقاومة الشعبية, 'People's Resistance'), a monthly publication.
The party faced harsh repression from the Jordanian state. On December 29, 1951, Fu'ad Nasser was arrested. He was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. In 1953, a legislation was passed that ordered forced labor for JCP cadres. However, the party continued to work in a clandestine way.
The party built up mass organizations, such as the Democratic Youth Association and the Peace Partisans. In May 1954, it formed the National Front, through which the party took part in the elections that year. In that election the National Front won one parliamentary seat, Abd al-Qadir Salih from Nablus.
The party reached the peak of its influence in 1956-1957, following the Suez Crisis and during the mobilizations against the Anglo-Jordanian Treaty. In the 1956 elections, the National Front won three seats. Salih retained his seat, and Fa'iq Warrad won in Ramallah and Yaqub Ziyadin won a seat in Jerusalem. Following the elections, there was a brief opening for the party. Salih was appointed as Minister of Agriculture in the government of Nablusi. Prisoners, like Fu'ad Nassar, were released from jail. The party press could be circulated openly. Its main opponent at the time was the Ba'ath Party, which also sought to make inroads amongst the secular sectors.
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