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Catullus


Gaius Valerius Catullus (/kəˈtʌləs/; c. 84 – 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes. His surviving works are still read widely, and continue to influence poetry and other forms of art.

Catullus' poems were widely appreciated by other poets. He greatly influenced poets such as Ovid, Horace, and Virgil. After his rediscovery in the late Middle Ages, Catullus again found admirers. His explicit writing style has shocked many readers. Indeed, Catullus' work was never canonical in schools, although his body of work is still frequently read from secondary school to graduate programs across the world.

Gaius Valerius Catullus (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs waˈɫɛ.ri.ʊs kaˈtʊl.lʊs]) was born to a leading equestrian family of Verona, in Cisalpine Gaul. The social prominence of the Catullus family allowed the father of Gaius Valerius to entertain Julius Caesar when he was the Promagistrate (proconsul) of both Gallic provinces. Catullus was raised primarily by his mother, Blandus, who exposed him to poetry and the works of Sappho and Callimachus at a young age. In a poem, Catullus describes his happy homecoming to the family villa at Sirmio, on Lake Garda, near Verona; he also owned a villa near the resort of Tibur (Tivoli).



Not to be confused with Romans named "Catulus", see Catulus.
  • poems to and about his friends (e.g., an invitation like poem 13).
  • erotic poems: some of them (50 and 99) indicate homosexual penchants, but most are about women, especially about one he calls "Lesbia" (which served as a false name for his married girlfriend, Clodia, source and inspiration of many of his poems).
  • invectives: often rude and sometimes downright obscene poems targeted at friends-turned-traitors (e.g., poem 16), other lovers of Lesbia, well-known poets, politicians (e.g., Julius Caesar) and rhetors, including Cicero.
  • condolences: some poems of Catullus are solemn in nature. 96 comforts a friend in the death of a loved one; several others, most famously 101, lament the death of his brother.
  • Balme, M.; Morewood, J (1997). Oxford Latin Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  • Barrett, A. A. (1972). "Catullus 52 and the Consulship of Vatinius". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 103: 23–38. 
  • Barwick, K. (1958). "Zyklen bei Martial und in den kleinen Gedichten des Catull". Philologus. 102: 284–318. 
  • Claes, P. (2002). Concatenatio Catulliana, A New Reading of the Carmina. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben
  • Clarke, Jacqueline (2006). "Bridal Songs: Catullan Epithalamia and Prudentius Peristephanon 3". Antichthon. 40: 89–103. 
  • Coleman, K.M. (1981). "The persona of Catullus' Phaselus". Greece &Rome. N.S. 28: 68–72. doi:10.1017/s0017383500033507. 
  • Dettmer, Helena (1997). Love by the Numbers: Form and the Meaning in the poetry of Catullus. Peter Lang Publishing. 
  • Deuling, Judy (2006). "Catullus 17 and 67, and the Catullan Construct". Antichthon. 40: 1–9. 
  • Dorey, T.A. (1959). "The Aurelii and the Furii". Proceedings of the African Classical Associations. 2: 9–10. 
  • Duhigg, J (1971). "The Elegiac Metre of Catullus". Antichthon. 5: 57–67. 
  • Ellis, R. (1889). A Commentary on Catullus. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Ferguson, J. (1963). "Catullus and Martial". Proceedings of the African Classical Associations. 6: 3–15. 
  • Ferguson, J. (1988). Catullus. Greece & Rome:New Surveys in the Classics. 20. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Ferrero, L. (1955). Interpretazione di Catullo (in Italian). Torino: Torino, Rosenberg & Sellier. 
  • Fitzgerald, W. (1995). Catullan Provocations; Lyric Poetry and the Drama of Position. Berkeley: University of California Press. 
  • Fletcher, G.B.A. (1967). "Catulliana". Latomus. 26: 104–106. 
  • Fletcher, G.B.A. (1991). "Further Catulliana". Latomus. 50: 92–93. 
  • Fordyce, C.J. (1961). Catullus, A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  • Gaisser, Julia Haig (1993). Catullus And His Renaissance Readers. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Greene, Ellen (2006). "Catullus, Caesar and the Roman Masculine Identity". Antichthon. 40: 49–64. 
  • Hallett, Judith (2006). "Catullus and Horace on Roman Women Poets". Antichthon. 40: 65–88. 
  • Harrington, Karl Pomeroy (1963). Catullus and His Influence. New York: Cooper Square Publishers. 
  • Havelock, E.A. (1939). The Lyric Genius of Catullus. Oxford: B. Blackwell. 
  • Hild, Christian (2013). Liebesgedichte als Wagnis. Emotionen und generationelle Prozesse in Catulls Lesbiagedichten. St.Ingbert: Röhrig. .
  • Jackson, Anna (2006). "Catullus in the Playground". Antichthon. 40: 104–116. 
  • Kaggelaris, N. (2015), "Wedding Cry: Sappho (Fr. 109 LP, Fr. 104(a) LP)- Catullus (c. 62. 20-5)- modern greek folk songs" [in Greek] in Avdikos, E.- Koziou-Kolofotia, B. (ed.) Modern Greek folk songs and history, Karditsa, pp. 260-70 [1]
  • Kidd, D.A. (1970). "Some Problems in Catullus lxvi". Antichthon. 4: 38–49. 
  • Kokoszkiewicz, Konrad W. (2004). "Et futura panda sive de Catulli carmine sexto corrigendo". Hermes. 32: 125–128. 
  • Kroll, Wilhelm (1929). C. Valerius Catullus (in German). Leipzig: B.G. Teubner. 
  • Maas, Paul (1942). "The Chronology of the Poems of Catullus". Classical Quarterly. 36: 79–82. doi:10.1017/s0009838800024605. 
  • Martin, Charles (1992). Catullus. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. ISBN . 
  • Munro, H.A.J. (1878). Criticisms and Elucidations of Catullus. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell and co. 
  • Newman, John Kevin (1990). Roman Catullus and the Modification of the Alexandrian Sensibility. Hildesheim: Weidmann. 
  • Quinn, Kenneth (1959). The Catullan Revolution. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. 
  • Quinn, Kenneth (1973). Catullus: The Poems (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan. 
  • Rothstein, Max (1923). "Catull und Lesbia". Philologus. 78: 1–34. 
  • Small, Stuart G.P. (1983). Catullus. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. ISBN . 
  • Swann, Bruce W. (1994). Martial's Catullus. The Reception of an Epigrammatic Rival. Hildesheim: Georg Olms. 
  • Thomson, Douglas Ferguson Scott (1997). Catullus: Edited with a Textual and Interpretative Commentary. Phoenix. 34: suppl. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN . 
  • Townend, G.B. (1980). "A Further Point in Catullus' attack on Volusius". Greece &Rome. n.s. 27: 134–136. doi:10.1017/s0017383500025791. 
  • Townend, G.B. (1983). "The Unstated Climax of Catullus 64". Greece &Rome. n.s. 30: 21–30. doi:10.1017/s0017383500026437. 
  • Tesoriero, Charles (2006). "Hidden Kisses in Catullus: Poems 5, 6, 7 and 8". Antichthon. 40: 10–18. 
  • Tuplin, C.J. (1981). "Catullus 68". Classical Quarterly. n.s. 31: 113–139. doi:10.1017/s000983880002111x. 
  • Uden, James (2006). "Embracing the Young Man in Love: Catullus 75 and the Comic Adulescens". Antichthon. 40: 19–34. 
  • Watson, Lindsay C. (2003). "Bassa's Borborysms: on Martial and Catullus". Antichthon. 37: 1–12. 
  • Watson, Lindsay C. (2006). "Catullus and the Poetics of Incest". Antichthon. 40: 35–48. 
  • Wheeler, A. L. (1934). Catullus and the Traditions of Ancient Poetry. Sather Classical Lectures. 9. Berkeley: University of California Press. 
  • Wilamowitz-Möllendorf, Ulrich von (1913). Sappho und Simonides (in German). Berlin: Weidmann. 
  • Wiseman, T. P. (1969). Catullan Questions. Leicester: Leicester University Press. 
  • Wiseman, T. P. (2002). Catullus and His World: A Reappraisal (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
  • Wiseman, T. P. (1974). Cinna the poet and other Roman essays. Leicester: Leicester University Press. ISBN . 
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