Main

  • Classics

    Classics


    • Classics or Classical Studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Graeco-Roman world, particularly of its languages, and literature (Ancient Greek and Classical Latin) but also it encompasses the study of Graeco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a necessary part of a rounded education. It has been traditionally a cornerstone of a typical elite education.

      The word Classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was originally used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning, referring to pupils at a school. Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, and to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use.

      In the Middle Ages, classics and education were tightly intertwined; according to Jan Ziolkowski, there is no era in history in which the link was tighter. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, and Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period.

      While Latin was hugely influential, however, Greek was barely studied, and Greek literature survived almost solely in Latin translation. The works of even major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages. Catullus, for instance, was almost entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors also waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was barely read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true.



      General
      General
      Philology
      Philology
      Greek history
      Greek history
      Roman history
      Roman history
      Literature
      Literature
      Philosophy
      Philosophy
      Art and archaeology
      Art and archaeology
      • Balbo, Andrea (2009). "Review of Bob Lister (ed.), Meeting the Challenge: International Perspectives on the Teaching of Latin". Bryn Mawr Classical Review. 
      • Becker, Trudy Harrington (2001). "Broadening Access to a Classical Education: State Universities in Virginia in the Nineteenth Century". The Classical Journal. 96 (3). 
      • Bulwer, John (2005). Teaching Classics in Europe: An Overview (PDF). Meeting the Challenge: European Perspectives on the Teaching of Latin. Cambridge. 
      • Cook, Stephen (2003-02-18). "Latin Types". 
      • Eliot, T.S. (1920). The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism. London: Methuen. 
      • Grant, Michael (1978). The History of Rome. London: Weidenfield and Nicholson. 
      • Handley, E. W. (1985). "Comedy". In Easterling, P. E.; Knox, Bernard M. W. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Kallendorf, Craig W. (2007). "Introduction". In Kallendorf, Craig W. A Companion to the Classical Tradition. Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, England; Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell. 
      • Kaminski, Thomas (2007). "Neoclassicism". In Kallendorf, Craig W. A Companion to the Classical Tradition. Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, England; Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell. 
      • Kirk, G. S. (1985). "Homer". In Easterling, P. E.; Knox, Bernard M. W. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Kristeller, Paul Oskar (1978). "Humanism". Minerva. 16 (4). 
      • Mackay, Christopher (1997). "Philology". 
      • Mann, Wolfgang-Ranier (1996). "The Modern Historiography of Ancient Philosophy". History and Theory. 35 (2). 
      • Martindale, Charles (2007). "Reception". In Kallendorf, Craig W. A Companion to the Classical Tradition. Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, England; Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell. 
      • Ostler, Nicholas (2009). Ad Infinitum: A Biography of Latin and the World it Created. London: HarperPress. 
      • Renfrew, Colin (1980). "The Great Tradition versus the Great Divide: Archaeology as Anthropology". American Journal of Archaeology. 84 (3). 
      • Rommel, Georg (2001). "The Cradle of Titans: Classical Philology in Greifswald and its History from 1820". Illinois Classical Studies. 26. 
      • Shapiro, H.A. (2007). "Introduction". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Shorey, Paul (1906). "Philology and Classical Philology". The Classical Journal. 1 (6). 
      • Stray, Christopher (1996). "Culture and Discipline: Classics and Society in Victorian England". International Journal of the Classical Tradition. 3 (1). 
      • Stray, Christopher (2010). "'Patriots and Professors': A Century of Roman Studies". Journal of Roman Studies. 
      • Trivedi, Harish (2007). "Western Classics, Indian Classics: Postcolonial Contestations". In Hardwick, Lorna; Gillespie, Carol. Classics in Post-Colonial Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
      • West, Martin (2001). "Early Greek Philosophy". In Boardman, John; Griffin, Jasper; Murray, Oswyn. The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
      • Winnington-Ingram, R. P.; Gould, John; Easterling, P. E.; Knox, Bernard M. W. (1985). "Tragedy". In Easterling, P. E.; Knox, Bernard M. W. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Ziolkowski, Jan M. (2007). "Middle Ages". In Kallendorf, Craig W. A Companion to the Classical Tradition. Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, England; Carlton, Victoria: Blackwell. 
      • Beard, Mary; Henderson, John (2000). Classics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
      • Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony, eds. (2012). Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
      • Chadwick, John (2014). The Decipherment of Linear B (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
      • Osborne, Robin (2009). Greece in the Making 1200–479 BC (2 ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Hornblower, Simon (2011). The Greek World 479–323 BC (4 ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Shipley, Graham (2000). The Greek World After Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Cornell, T. J. (1995). The Beginnings of Rome. London: Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Crawford, M. (1993). The Roman Republic (2 ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN . 
      • Millar, F. (2002). Rome, the Greek World, and the East: The Roman Republic and the Augustan Revolution. 1. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN . 
      • Brown, Peter (1989). The World of Late Antiquity 150–750. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN . 
      • Whitmarsh, Tim (2004). Ancient Greek Literature. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN . 
      • Irwin, Terence (1988). Classical Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
      • Shields, Christopher (2012). Ancient Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction (2 ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Julia, Annas (2000). Ancient Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
      • Boardman, John (1996). Greek Art (4 ed.). Thames & Hudson. ISBN . 
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Classics

Extras