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Adjectives are one of the English parts of speech, although historically they were classed together with the nouns. Certain words that were traditionally considered to be adjectives, including the, this, my, etc., are today usually classed separately, as determiners.
Adjective comes from Latin (nōmen) adjectīvum "additional (noun)", a calque of Ancient Greek: ἐπίθετον (ὄνομα) epítheton (ónoma) "additional (noun)". In the grammatical tradition of Latin and Greek, because adjectives were inflected for gender, number, and case like nouns (a process called declension), they were considered a subtype of noun. The words that are today typically called nouns were then called substantive nouns (nōmen substantīvum). The terms noun substantive and noun adjective were formerly used in English, until the word noun came to refer only to the former type, and the second type came to be known simply as adjectives.
A given occurrence of an adjective can generally be classified into one of three kinds of use:
Adjectives feature as a part of speech (word class) in most languages. In some languages, the words that serve the semantic function of adjectives may be categorized together with some other class, such as nouns or verbs. For example, rather than an adjective meaning "big", a language might have a verb that means "to be big", and could then use an attributive verb construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what English expresses as "big house". Such an analysis is possible for the grammar of Standard Chinese, for example.
|puella bona||(good girl, feminine singular nominative)|
|puellam bonam||(good girl, feminine singular accusative/object case)|
|puer bonus||(good boy, masculine singular nominative)|
|pueri boni||(good boys, masculine plural nominative)|
|buachaill maith||(good boy, masculine)|
|girseach mhaith||(good girl, feminine)|
|The good (Ø) boys.||The boys are good (Ø).|
|Les bons garçons.||Les garçons sont bons.|
|Die braven Jungen.||Die Jungen sind brav (Ø).|
|A jó (Ø) fiúk.||A fiúk jók.|
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