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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome
753 BC–476 AD

Territories of the Roman civilization:
Capital Rome
Languages Latin
Government Kingdom (753 BC-509 BC)
Republic (509 BC- 27 BC)
Empire (27 BC-476 AD)
Historical era Ancient History
 •  Founding of Rome 753 BC
 •  Overthrow of Tarquin the Proud 509 BC
 •  Octavian proclaimed Augustus 27 BC
 •  Fall of Rome 476 AD
External video
Ancient Rome (13:47), Smarthistory at Khan Academy

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population) and covering 5.0 million square kilometers at its height in AD 117.

In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.

Scholarly sources freely available online
  • Adkins, Lesley; Roy Adkins (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Cary, M. (1967). A History of Rome Down to the Reign of Constantine (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. 
  • Casson, Lionel (1998). Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN . 
  • Dio, Cassius. "Dio's Rome, Volume V., Books 61–76 (AD 54–211)". 
  • Duiker, William; Jackson Spielvogel (2001). World History (Third ed.). Wadsworth. ISBN . 
  • Durant, Will (1944). The Story of Civilization, Volume III: Caesar and Christ. Simon and Schuster, Inc. 
  • Elton, Hugh (1996). Warfare in Roman Europe AD350-425. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Flower (editor), Harriet I. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
  • Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (2008). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale University Press
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (1996). The Roman Army at War 100BC-AD200. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (2003). The Complete Roman Army. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. ISBN . 
  • Grant, Michael (2005). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. London: Phoenix Press. ISBN . 
  • Haywood, Richard (1971). The Ancient World. David McKay Company, Inc. 
  • Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN . 
  • Livy. The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5, translated from Latin by T.J. Luce, 1998. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. .
  • Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
  • Matyszak, Philip (2003). Chronicle of the Roman Republic. London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd. ISBN . 
  • O'Connell, Robert (1989). Of Arms and Men: A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Scarre, Chris (September 1995). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. Penguin Books. ISBN . 
  • Scullard, H. H. (1982). From the Gracchi to Nero. (5th edition). Routledge. ISBN . 
  • Ward-Perkins, John Bryan (1994). Roman Imperial Architecture. Yale University Press. ISBN . 
  • Werner, Paul (1978). Life in Rome in Ancient Times. translated by David Macrae. Geneva: Editions Minerva S.A. 
  • Willis, Roy (2000). World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide. Collingwood, Victoria: Ken Fin Books. ISBN . 
  • Cowell, Frank Richard (1961). Life in Ancient Rome. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN . 
  • Gabucci, Ada (2007). Rome (Dictionaries of Civilizations; 2). Berkekely: University of California Press. ISBN . 
  • Scheidel, Walter; Morris, Ian; Saller, Richard P. (2008). The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World. 
  • Woolf, Greg (2012). Rome: An Empire's Story. New York: Oxford. ISBN . 
  • Wyke, Maria (1997). Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema, and History. New York; London: Routledge. ISBN . 


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