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Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great
Basileus of Macedon, Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shahanshah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt, Lord of Asia
Alexander the Great mosaic.jpg
King of Macedonia
Reign 336–323 BC
Predecessor Philip II
Successor Alexander IV
Philip III
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 332–323 BC
Predecessor Darius III
Successor Alexander IV
Philip III
King of Persia
Reign 330–323 BC
Predecessor Darius III
Successor Alexander IV
Philip III
King of Asia
Reign 331–323 BC
Predecessor New office
Successor Alexander IV
Philip III
Born 20 or 21 July 356 BC
Pella, Macedon
Died 10 or 11 June 323 BC (aged 32)
Spouse Roxana of Bactria
Stateira II of Persia
Parysatis II of Persia
Issue Alexander IV
Full name
Alexander III of Macedon
  • Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος (Mégas Aléxandros, Great Alexander)
  • Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας (Aléxandros ho Mégas, Alexander the Great)
Dynasty Argead
Father Philip II of Macedon
Mother Olympias of Epirus
Religion Greek polytheism
Full name
Alexander III of Macedon

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas Koine Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas] ), was a king (basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.

During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, Alexander succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire), and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.

Date War Action Opponent/s Type Country Rank Outcome Record
338-08-02 2 August 338 BC Rise of Macedon Chaeronea Battle of Chaeronea .Thebans, Athenians Battle Greece Prince Victory

335 335 BC Balkan Campaign Mount Haemus Battle of Mount Haemus .Getae, Thracians Battle present-day Bulgaria King Victory

335-12 December 335 BC Balkan Campaign Pelium Siege of Pelium .Illyrians Siege Greece King Victory

335-12 December 335 BC Balkan Campaign Pelium Battle of Thebes .Thebans Battle Greece King Victory

334-05 May 334 BC Persian Campaign Granicus Battle of the Granicus .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Turkey King Victory

334 334 BC Persian Campaign Miletus Siege of Miletus .Achaemenid Empire, Milesians Siege present-day Turkey King Victory

334 334 BC Persian Campaign Halicarnassus Siege of Halicarnassus .Achaemenid Empire Siege present-day Turkey King Victory

333-11-05 5 November 333 BC Persian Campaign Issus Battle of Issus .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Turkey King Victory

332 January–July 332 BC Persian Campaign Tyre Siege of Tyre .Achaemenid Empire, Tyrians Siege present-day Lebanon King Victory

332-10 October 332 BC Persian Campaign Tyre Siege of Gaza .Achaemenid Empire Siege present-day Palestine King Victory

331-10-01 1 October 331 BC Persian Campaign Gaugamela Battle of Gaugamela .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Iraq King Victory

331-12 December 331 BC Persian Campaign Uxian Defile Battle of the Uxian Defile .Uxians Battle present-day Iran King Victory

330-01-20 20 January 330 BC Persian Campaign Persian Gate Battle of the Persian Gate .Achaemenid Empire Battle present-day Iran King Victory

329 329 BC Persian Campaign Cyropolis Siege of Cyropolis .Sogdians Siege present-day Turkmenistan King Victory

329-10 October 329 BC Persian Campaign Jaxartes Battle of Jaxartes .Scythians Battle present-day Uzbekistan King Victory

327 327 BC Persian Campaign Sogdian Rock Siege of the Sogdian Rock .Sogdians Siege present-day Uzbekistan King Victory

327 May 327-March 326 BC Indian Campaign Cophen Cophen Campaign .Aspasians Expedition present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan King Victory

326-04 April 326 BC Indian Campaign Aornos Siege of Aornos .Aśvaka Siege present-day Pakistan King Victory

326-05 May 326 BC Indian Campaign Hydaspes Battle of the Hydaspes .Paurava Battle present-day Pakistan King Victory

325 November 326-February 325 BC Indian Campaign Aornos Siege of Multan .Malli Siege present-day India King Victory

Alexander the Great
Argead dynasty
Born: 356 BC 323 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Philip II
King of Macedon
336–323 BC
Succeeded by
Philip III and Alexander IV
Preceded by
Darius III
Great King (Shah) of Persia
330–323 BC
Pharaoh of Egypt
332–323 BC
New creation Lord of Asia
331–323 BC

  • Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος (Mégas Aléxandros, Great Alexander)
  • Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας (Aléxandros ho Mégas, Alexander the Great)
  • Construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip, "to match the greatest of the pyramids of Egypt"
  • Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Dium, Amphipolis, and a monumental temple to Athena at Troy
  • Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean Basin
  • Circumnavigation of Africa
  • Development of cities and the "transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties."
  • Badian, Ernst (1958). "Alexander the Great and the Unity of Mankind". Historia. 7: 425–444. 
  • Beazley, JD; Ashmole, B (1932). Greek Sculpture and Painting. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Bowra, Maurice (1994). The Greek Experience. Phoenix. ISBN . 
  • Burn, AR (1951). Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire (2 ed.). London: English Universities Press. 
  • Rufus, Quintus Curtius. "Quintus Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander the Great" (in Latin). U Chicago. 
  • Cartledge, Paul (2004). "Alexander the Great". Overlook. 
  • Doherty, Paul (2004). "The Death of Alexander the Great". Carroll & Graf. 
  • Engels, Donald W (1978). Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley: University of California Press. 
  • Fawcett, Bill, ed. (2006). How To Lose A Battle: Foolish Plans and Great Military Blunders. Harper. ISBN . 
  • Fuller, JFC (1958). The Generalship of Alexander the Great. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. ISBN . 
  • Green, Peter (1992). Alexander of Macedon: 356–323 BC. A Historical Biography. University of California Press. ISBN . 
  • Greene, Robert (2000). The 48 Laws of Power. Penguin. p. 351. ISBN . 
  • Hammond, NGL (1989). The Macedonian State: Origins, Institutions, and History. Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Hammond, NGL (1994). Alexander the Great: King, Commander, and Statesman (3 ed.). London: Bristol Classical Press. 
  • Hammond, NGL (1997). The Genius of Alexander the Great. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 
  • Mercer, Charles (1962). The Way of Alexander the Great (1 ed.). Boston: American Heritage Inc. 
  • McCrindle, J. W. (1893). The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great as Described by Arrian, Q Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Justin. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. 
  • Murphy, James Jerome; Katula, Richard A; Hill, Forbes I; Ochs, Donovan J (2003). A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 17. ISBN . 
  • Nandan, Y; Bhavan, BV (2003). British Death March Under Asiatic Impulse: Epic of Anglo-Indian Tragedy in Afghanistan. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. ISBN . 
  • O'Brien, John Maxwell (1992). Alexander the Great: The Invisible Enemy. London: Routledge. 
  • Pomeroy, S; Burstein, S; Dolan, W; Roberts, J (1998). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Prevas, John (2004). Envy of the Gods: Alexander the Great's Ill-Fated Journey Across Asia (3 ed.). Da Capo. 
  • Roisman, Joseph, ed. (1995). Alexander the Great Ancient and Modern Perspectives. Problems in European Civilization. Lexington, MA: DC Heath. 
  • Savill, Agnes (1959). Alexander the Great and His Time (3 ed.). London: Barrie & Rockliff. 
  • Stewart, Andrew (1993). Faces of Power: Alexander's Image and Hellenistic Politics. Hellenistic Culture and Society. 11. Berkeley: University of California Press. 
  • Stoneman, Richard (2008). Alexander the Great: A Life in Legend. Yale University Press. ISBN . 
  • Tarn, WW (1948). Alexander the Great. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Wheeler, Benjamin Ide (1900). Alexander the Great; the merging of East and West in universal history. New York: GP Putnam's sons. 
  • Wilcken, Ulrich (1997) [1932]. Alexander the Great. New York: WW Norton & Co. ISBN . 
  • Worthington, Ian (2004). Alexander the Great: Man And God. Pearson. ISBN . 


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