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Logology ("the science of science") is the study of all aspects of science and of its practitioners—aspects philosophical, biological, psychological, societal, historical, political, institutional, financial.

The term "logology" is used here as a synonym for the equivalent term "science of science" and the semi-equivalent term "sociology of science".

The term "logology" is back-formed from "-logy" (as in "geology", "anthropology", "sociology", etc.) in the sense of the "study of study" or the "science of science"—or, more plainly, the "study of science".

The word "logology" provides grammatical variants not available with the earlier terms "science of science" and "sociology of science"—"logologist", "to logologize", "logological", "logologically".

The early 20th century brought calls, initially from sociologists, for the creation of a new, empirically based science that would study the scientific enterprise itself. The early proposals were put forward with some hesitancy and deferentiality. The new meta-science would be given a variety of names, including "science of knowledge", "science of science", "sociology of science", and "logology".

The Polish sociologist Florian Znaniecki, considered the founder of Polish academic sociology and who also served as the 44th president of the American Sociological Association, opened a 1923 article:

Although theoretical reflection on knowledge — which arose as early as Heraclitus and the Eleatics — stretches in an unbroken line through the history of human thought to the present day, nevertheless the most recent times have introduced into these reflections so many new questions and viewpoints so divergent from the earlier ones that we may safely say that we are now witnessing the creation of a new science of knowledge [author's emphasis] whose relationship to the old inquiries may be compared with the relationship of modern physics and chemistry to the 'natural philosophy' that preceded them, or of contemporary sociology to the 'political philosophy' of antiquity and the Renaissance. To be sure, we are still dealing with an accumulation of miscellaneous observations rather than with a systematically and consciously developed scientific whole, but gradually an order is emerging from this chaos and there is beginning to take shape a concept of a single, general theory of knowledge as a separate branch of human culture, endowed with special empirical properties and permitting of empirical study. This theory is beginning to take its place beside such sciences as economics and linguistics as it assumes the traits of a positive, comparative, generalizing and elucidating science. Thereby, too, it is coming to be distinguished clearly from epistemology, from normative logic and from a strictly descriptive history of knowledge. The distinction ... is not the result of some arbitrary a priori designation of the boundaries between the respective fields of human thought, but has developed spontaneously through the emergence — within each of the earlier types of reflection upon knowledge — of problems that have resisted accommodation within its traditional sphere. These problems, gradually concentrating on a common ground outside the scope of purely epistemological, logical or historical thought, constitute one of the main sources of the new science of knowledge.



  • Freeman Dyson, "The Case for Blunders" (review of Mario Livio, Brilliant Blunders: From Darwin to Einstein—Colossal Mistakes by Great Scientists that Changed Our Understanding of Life and the Universe, Simon and Schuster), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXI, no. 4 (March 6, 2014), pp. 4–8.
  • A. Rupert Hall, Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Leibniz, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1980, .
  • Jim Holt, "At the Core of Science" (a review of Steven Weinberg, To Explain the World: The Discovery of Modern Science, Harper, 2015, []), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 14 (September 24, 2015), p. 53–54.
  • Steven Johnson, Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation, New York, Riverhead Books, 2010, .
  • Christopher Kasparek, "Prus' Pharaoh: the Creation of a Historical Novel," The Polish Review, vol. XXXIX, no. 1 (1994), pp. 45–50.
  • Christopher Kasparek, review of Robert Olby, The Path to the Double Helix (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1974), in Zagadnienia naukoznawstwa (Logology, or Science of Science), Warsaw, vol. 14, no. 3 (1978), pp. 461–63.
  • Q[ing] Ke; et al. (2015). "Defining and identifying Sleeping Beauties in science". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112: 7426–7431. doi:10.1073/pnas.1424329112.
  • Lawrence M. Krauss, "The Universe: 'The Important Stuff Is Invisible'", The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIII, no. 4 (March 10, 2016), pp. 37–38, 40.
  • David Lamb and S.M. Easton, Multiple Discovery: The Pattern of Scientific Progress, Amersham, Avebury Press, 1984, .
  • Gary Marcus, "Am I Human?: Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 3 (March 2017), pp. 58–63.
  • Susana Martinez-Conde, Devin Powell and Stephen L. Macknik, "The Plight of the Celebrity Scientist", Scientific American, vol. 315, no. 4 (October 2016), pp. 64–67.
  • Robert K. Merton, On Social Structure and Science, edited and with an introduction by Piotr Sztompka, University of Chicago Press, 1996.
  • Robert K. Merton, The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, Chicago, University of Chicago Press,1973.
  • Nathan Myhrvold, "Even Genius Needs a Benefactor: Without government resources, basic science will grind to a halt", Scientific American, vol. 314, no. 2 (February 2016), p. 11.
  • Thomas Nagel, "Listening to Reason" (a review of T.M. Scanlon, Being Realistic about Reasons, Oxford University Press, 132 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXI, no. 15 (October 9, 2014), pp. 47–49.
  • Maria Ossowska and Stanisław Ossowski, "The Science of Science", reprinted in Bohdan Walentynowicz, ed., Polish Contributions to the Science of Science, Dordrecht, Holland, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1982, pp. 82–95.
  • Bolesław Prus, : A Public Lecture Delivered on 23 March 1873 by Aleksander Głowacki [Bolesław Prus], Passed by the [Russian] Censor (Warsaw, 21 April 1873), Warsaw, Printed by F. Krokoszyńska, 1873. [2]
  • Tori Reeve, Down House: the Home of Charles Darwin, London, English Heritage, 2009.
  • John R. Searle, “What Your Computer Can’t Know” (review of Luciano Floridi, The Fourth Revolution: How the Infosphere Is Reshaping Human Reality, Oxford University Press, 2014; and Nick Bostrom, Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies, Oxford University Press, 2014), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXI, no. 15 (October 9, 2014), pp. 52–55.
  • Michael Shermer, "Scientia Humanitatis: Reason, empiricism and skepticism are not virtues of science alone", Scientific American, vol. 312, no. 6 (June 2015), p. 80.
  • , "Preface", Polish Contributions to the Science of Science, Dordrecht, Holland, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1982, , pp. VII–X.
  • Zygmunt Szweykowski, Nie tylko o Prusie: szkice (Not Only about Prus: Sketches), Poznań, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 1967.
  • Stefan Theil, "Trouble in Mind: Two years in, a $1-billion-plus effort to simulate the human brain is in disarray. Was it poor management, or is something fundamentally wrong with Big Science?", Scientific American, vol. 313, no. 4 (October 2015), pp. 36–42.
  • G.W. Trompf, The Idea of Historical Recurrence in Western Thought, from Antiquity to the Reformation, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1979, .
  • , ed., Polish Contributions to the Science of Science, Dordrecht, Holland, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1982, .
  • , "Editor's Note", Polish Contributions to the Science of Science, Dordrecht, Holland, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1982, , pp. XI–XII.
  • Florian Znaniecki, "The Subject Matter and Tasks of the Science of Knowledge" (English translation), in Bohdan Walentynowicz, ed., Polish Contributions to the Science of Science, Dordrecht, Holland, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1982, , pp. 1–81.
  • Harriet Zuckerman, Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States, New York, The Free Press, 1977.
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