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Hellenistic period

External video
Athena and Nike fight Alkyoneus, Gaia rises up from the ground (5336871341).jpg
The Pergamon Altar, Smarthistory

The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, Africa and Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science. It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism and Epicureanism. Greek Science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and the Greek adoption of Buddhism.



...the Athenians found themselves suddenly a great power. Not just in one field, but in everything they set their minds to...As subjects of a tyrant, what had they accomplished?...Held down like slaves they had shirked and slacked; once they had won their freedom, not a citizen but he could feel like he was labouring for himself"
  • Austin, Michel M. (1981). The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: a selection of ancient sources in translation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN . 
  • Cary, Max (1932). A History of the Greek World from 323 to 146 B.C. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. 
  • "Under the Influence: Hellenism in Ancient Jewish Life" Biblical Archaeology Society
  • Chamoux, F. (2002). Hellenistic Civilization. Wiley/Blackwell. 
  • Tarn, W; Griffith, G. T. (1952). Hellenistic Civilization. 
  • Walbank, F. W. (1981). The Hellenistic World. Harvard University Press. 
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Wikipedia

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