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Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders. Its roots can be traced back to the middle of the 20th century, when the UKUSA Agreement was jointly enacted by the United Kingdom and the United States, which later expanded to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to create the Five Eyes alliance. The alliance developed cooperation arrangements with several "third-party" nations. Eventually, this resulted in the establishment of a global surveillance network, code-named "ECHELON", in 1971.
Its existence, however, was not widely acknowledged by governments and the mainstream media until the global surveillance disclosures by Edward Snowden triggered a debate about the right to privacy in the Digital Age.
The origins of global surveillance can be traced back to the late 1940s, after the UKUSA Agreement was jointly enacted by the United Kingdom and the United States, which eventually culminated in the creation of the global surveillance network code-named "ECHELON" in 1971.
In the aftermath of the 1970s Watergate affair and a subsequent congressional inquiry led by Sen. Frank Church, it was revealed that the NSA, in collaboration with Britain's GCHQ, had routinely intercepted the international communications of prominent anti-Vietnam War leaders such as Jane Fonda and Dr. Benjamin Spock. Decades later, a multi-year investigation by the European Parliament highlighted the NSA's role in economic espionage in a report entitled 'Development of Surveillance Technology and Risk of Abuse of Economic Information', in 1999.
- Federal agencies in the United States
- Foreign countries
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- National Security Agency (NSA)
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
- Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- Other law enforcement agencies
- White House
Main targets: China, Russia, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan were ranked highly on the NSA's list of spying priorities, followed by France, Germany, Japan, and Brazil. The European Union's "international trade" and "economic stability" are also of interest. Other high priority targets include Cuba, Israel, and North Korea.
Irrelevant: From a US intelligence perspective, countries such as Cambodia, Laos and Nepal were largely irrelevant, as were governments of smaller European Union countries such as Finland, Denmark, Croatia and the Czech Republic.
- Hacking of e-mail accounts as part of an operation code-named "Whitetamale"
The Bad Aibling Station in Bavaria, Germany, was operated by the NSA until the early 2000s. It is currently run by the BND. As part of the global surveillance network ECHELON, it is the largest listening post outside Britain and the USA.
In 2013, the German news magazine Der Spiegel published an excerpt of an NSA document leaked by Edward Snowden, showing that the BND used the NSA's XKEYSCORE to wiretap a German domestic target.
Summary of a meeting held in February 2013 between the NSA and the Dutch intelligence services AIVD and MIVD
- "Global Surveillance. An annotated and categorized "overview of the revelations following the leaks by the whistleblower Edward Snowden. There are also some links to comments and followups". By Oslo University Library.
"The NSA Files". The Guardian. London. 8 June 2013.
Politico Staff. "NSA leaks cause flood of political problems." Politico. June 13, 2013.
NSA inspector general report on email and internet data collection under Stellar Wind as provided by The Guardian on June 27, 2013.
- "Putin talks NSA, Syria, Iran, drones in exclusive RT interview (FULL VIDEO)." Russia Today. June 12, 2013.
Ackerman, Spencer. "NSA warned to rein in surveillance as agency reveals even greater scope." The Guardian. July 17, 2013.
Ackerman, Spencer. "Slew of court challenges threaten NSA's relationship with tech firms." The Guardian. Wednesday July 17, 2013.
Ackerman, Spencer and Paul Lewis. "NSA amendment's narrow defeat spurs privacy advocates for surveillance fight." The Guardian. Thursday July 25, 2013.
Ackerman, Spencer and Dan Roberts. "US embassy closures used to bolster case for NSA surveillance programs." The Guardian. Monday August 5, 2013.
- Two of the 'trips' (numbers 29 and 76) in the 2006 book, 'No Holiday', Cohen, Martin. No Holiday. New York: Disinformation Company Ltd. ISBN . are investigating the NSA and its activities.
Greenwald, Glenn. "Members of Congress denied access to basic information about NSA." The Guardian. Sunday August 4, 2013.
- Liu, Edward C. Surveillance of Foreigners Outside the United States Under Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Congressional Research Service, April 13, 2016.
- "Obama’s former adviser ridicules statement that NSA doesn’t spy on Americans." (Archive) Russia Today. August 9, 2013.
- MacAskill, Ewen. "Justice Department fails in bid to delay landmark case on NSA collection." The Guardian. Thursday July 25, 2013.
- Rushe, Dominic. "Microsoft pushes Eric Holder to lift block on public information sharing." The Guardian. Tuesday July 16, 2013.
- Perez, Evan. "Documents shed light on U.S. surveillance programs." (Archive) CNN. August 9, 2013.
- Gellman, Barton. "NSA broke privacy rules thousands of times per year, audit finds." Washington Post. Thursday August 15, 2013.
- Roberts, Dan and Robert Booth. "NSA defenders: embassy closures followed pre-9/11 levels of 'chatter'." The Guardian. Sunday August 4, 2013.
Greenwald, Glenn. "The crux of the NSA story in one phrase: 'collect it all'." The Guardian. Monday July 15, 2013.
- Sanchez, Julian. "Five things Snowden leaks revealed about NSA’s original warrantless wiretaps." Ars Technica. July 9, 2013.
- Forero, Juan. "Paper reveals NSA ops in Latin America." Washington Post. July 9, 2013.
- Jabour, Bridie. "Telstra signed deal that would have allowed US spying." The Guardian. Friday July 12, 2013.
Ackerman, Spencer. "White House stays silent on renewal of NSA data collection order." The Guardian. Thursday July 18, 2013.
- Naughton, John. "Edward Snowden's not the story. The fate of the internet is." The Guardian. July 28, 2013.
- Adams, Becket. "MAD MAGAZINE USES ICONIC CHARACTERS TO HIT OBAMA OVER GOV’T SURVEILLANCE." The Blaze. August 8, 2013.
- Howerton, Jason. "HERE IS THE PRO-NSA SURVEILLANCE ARGUMENT." The Blaze. June 10, 2013.
- "Edward Snowden NSA files: secret surveillance and our revelations so far – Leaked National Security Agency documents have led to several hundred Guardian stories on electronic privacy and the state" by the Guardian's James Ball on August 21, 2013
2013-07-29 Letter of FISA Court president Reggie B. Walton to the Chairman of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Patrick J. Leahy about certain operations of the FISA Court; among other things the process of accepting, modifying and/or rejecting surveillance measures proposed by the U.S. government, the interaction between the FISA Court and the U.S. government, the appearance of non-governmental parties before the court and the process used by the Court to consider and resolve any instances where the government entities notifies the court of compliance concerns with any of the FISA authorities.
"The Spy Files". . December 1, 2011. A collection of documents relating to surveillance.
"Veja os documentos ultrassecretos que comprovam espionagem a Dilma" (in Portuguese). September 2, 2013. Documents relating to the surveillance against Dilma Rousseff and Enrique Peña Nieto
NSA surveillance: A guide to staying secure - The NSA has huge capabilities – and if it wants in to your computer, it's in. With that in mind, here are five ways to stay safe by The Guardian's Bruce Schneier on September 5, 2013.
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