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Global surveillance


Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders. Its roots can be traced back to the middle of the 20th century, when the UKUSA Agreement was jointly enacted by the United Kingdom and the United States, which later expanded to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to create the Five Eyes alliance. The alliance developed cooperation arrangements with several "third-party" nations. Eventually, this resulted in the establishment of a global surveillance network, code-named "ECHELON", in 1971.

Its existence, however, was not widely acknowledged by governments and the mainstream media until the global surveillance disclosures by Edward Snowden triggered a debate about the right to privacy in the Digital Age.

The origins of global surveillance can be traced back to the late 1940s, after the UKUSA Agreement was jointly enacted by the United Kingdom and the United States, which eventually culminated in the creation of the global surveillance network code-named "ECHELON" in 1971.

In the aftermath of the 1970s Watergate affair and a subsequent congressional inquiry led by Sen. Frank Church, it was revealed that the NSA, in collaboration with Britain's GCHQ, had routinely intercepted the international communications of prominent anti-Vietnam War leaders such as Jane Fonda and Dr. Benjamin Spock. Decades later, a multi-year investigation by the European Parliament highlighted the NSA's role in economic espionage in a report entitled 'Development of Surveillance Technology and Risk of Abuse of Economic Information', in 1999.


Country/
Organization
Target Method(s)
 Brazil Ministry of Energy Collection of metadata records by the Communications Security Establishment of Canada (CSEC)
 France Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs Infiltration of virtual private networks (VPN)
Embassy of France in Washington, D.C
 Germany Embassy of Germany in Rwanda
 Italy Embassy of Italy in Washington, D.C
 India Embassy of India in Washington, D.C
Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations
 Mexico Secretariat of Public Security
  • Hacking of e-mail accounts as part of an operation code-named "Whitetamale"
 European Union Council of the European Union in Brussels
Delegation to the United Nations in New York
Delegation to the United States in Washington, D.C
 United Nations United Nations Headquarters
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Federal agencies in the United States
Foreign countries
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
National Security Agency (NSA)
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Other law enforcement agencies
White House
  • Main targets: China, Russia, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan were ranked highly on the NSA's list of spying priorities, followed by France, Germany, Japan, and Brazil. The European Union's "international trade" and "economic stability" are also of interest. Other high priority targets include Cuba, Israel, and North Korea.
  • Irrelevant: From a US intelligence perspective, countries such as Cambodia, Laos and Nepal were largely irrelevant, as were governments of smaller European Union countries such as Finland, Denmark, Croatia and the Czech Republic.
  • Hacking of e-mail accounts as part of an operation code-named "Whitetamale"
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Wikipedia

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