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Forgiveness is the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as vengefulness, with an increased ability to wish the offender well. Forgiveness is different from condoning (failing to see the action as wrong and in need of forgiveness), excusing (not holding the offender as responsible for the action), forgetting (removing awareness of the offense from consciousness), pardoning (granted for an acknowledged offense by a representative of society, such as a judge), and reconciliation (restoration of a relationship).
In certain contexts, forgiveness is a legal term for absolving or giving up all claims on account of debt, loan, obligation, or other claims.
As a psychological concept and virtue, the benefits of forgiveness have been explored in religious thought, the social sciences and medicine. Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person who forgives including forgiving themselves, in terms of the person forgiven or in terms of the relationship between the forgiver and the person forgiven. In most contexts, forgiveness is granted without any expectation of restorative justice, and without any response on the part of the offender (for example, one may forgive a person who is or dead). In practical terms, it may be necessary for the offender to offer some form of acknowledgment, an , or even just ask for forgiveness, in order for the wronged person to believe himself able to forgive.
Social and political dimensions of forgiveness Is the question of forgiveness restricted to the strictly private and religious sphere or can it have a social and political dimension? The notion of "forgiveness" is generally considered unusual in the political field. However, Hannah Arendt considers that the "faculty of forgiveness" has its place in public affairs. The philosopher believes that forgiveness can liberate resources both individually and collectively in the face of the irreparable. During an investigation in Rwanda on the discourses and practices of forgiveness after the 1994 genocide, sociologist Benoît Guillou illustrated the extreme polysemy of the word "forgiveness" but also the eminently political character of the notion. By way of conclusion of his work, the author proposes four main figures of forgiveness to better understanding, on the one hand, ambiguous uses and, on the other hand, the conditions under which forgiveness can mediate a resumption of social link.
- "He abused me, he struck me, he overcame me, he robbed me’ — in those who harbor such thoughts hatred will never cease."
- "He abused me, he struck me, he overcame me, he robbed me’ — in those who do not harbor such thoughts hatred will cease."
- (Dhammapada 1.3-4; trans. Radhakrishnan - see article)
- "It is forbidden to be obdurate and not allow yourself to be appeased. On the contrary, one should be easily pacified and find it difficult to become angry. When asked by an offender for forgiveness, one should forgive with a sincere mind and a willing spirit. . . forgiveness is natural to the seed of Israel." (Mishneh Torah, Teshuvah 2:10)
- "I know that there is no one so righteous that they have not wronged another, financially or physically, through deed or speech. This pains my heart within me, because wrongs between humans and their fellow are not atoned by Yom Kippur, until the wronged one is appeased. Because of this, my heart breaks within me, and my bones tremble; for even the day of death does not atone for such sins. Therefore I prostrate and beg before You, to have mercy on me, and grant me grace, compassion, and mercy in Your eyes and in the eyes of all people. For behold, I forgive with a final and resolved forgiveness anyone who has wronged me, whether in person or property, even if they slandered me, or spread falsehoods against me. So I release anyone who has injured me either in person or in property, or has committed any manner of sin that one may commit against another [except for legally enforceable business obligations, and except for someone who has deliberately harmed me with the thought ‘I can harm him because he will forgive me']. Except for these two, I fully and finally forgive everyone; may no one be punished because of me. And just as I forgive everyone, so may You grant me grace in the eyes of others, that they too forgive me absolutely." [emphasis added]
- Forgiveness takes
- The different forms of forgiveness
- The danger in communicating in forgiveness
- Perpetrators and victims have different perceptive context is important
- The importance of seeking forgiveness
- The role of the sacred in marital forgiveness
Balancing the Scales of Justices with Forgiveness and Repentance, Randall J. Cecrle, 2007,
The Power of Forgiveness, Marcus G. 2011, Sapients.Net
Radical Forgiveness: Making Room for the Miracle, Colin Tipping, 1997,
Forgiving and Not Forgiving: Why Sometimes It's Better Not to Forgive, Jeanne Safer, 2000,
- Forgiveness: a Philosophical Exploration (Cambridge University Press, 2007), by Charles Griswold. .
- Hein, David. "Regrets Only: A Theology of Remorse." The Anglican 33, no. 4 (October 2004): 5-6.
Hein, David (2007). "Austin Farrer on Justification and Sanctification". The Anglican Digest. 49 (1): 51–54.
- Konstan, David, Before Forgiveness: The Origins of a Moral Idea (Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
- Kramer, J. and Alstad D., The Guru Papers: Masks of Authoritarian Power, 1993,
- Lampert, K.(2005); Traditions of Compassion: From Religious Duty to Social Activism. Palgrave-Macmillan;
- Fred Luskin, Ph.D. Forgive for Good: A Proven Prescription for Health and Happiness (Harper, 2002)
- Murphy, J. and Hampton, J. Forgiveness and Mercy (Cambridge University Press, 1988).
- Norlock, K. Forgiveness from a Feminist Perspective (Lexington Books, 2009).
- Pettigrove, G. Forgiveness and Love (Oxford University Press, 2012).
- Schmidt D. (2003); The Prayer of Revenge: Forgiveness in the Face of Injustice;
Toxic Parents: Overcoming Their Hurtful Legacy and Reclaiming Your Life, Susan Forward, 1990.
The Railway Man: A POW's Searing Account of War, Brutality, and Forgiveness, Eric Lomax,
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