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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain, but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found.

The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor.

Originally, Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes (35 volumes total) as the tenth edition, which was published in 1902. Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, and he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is generally perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but also in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods also assisted sales. Some 11% of the contributors were American, and a New York office was established to manage that part of the enterprise.

The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, and a key is given in each volume to these initials. Some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the then lesser-known contributors were some who would later become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell. Many articles were carried over from the 9th edition, some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged. The best-known authors generally contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by journalists, British Museum scholars and other scholars. The 1911 edition was the first edition of the Encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition.

Subject Content
Geography 29%
Pure and applied science 17%
History 17%
Literature 11%
Fine art 9%
Social science 7%
Psychology 1.7%
Philosophy 0.8%
Internet Archive – Text Archives
Individual Volumes
Volume From To
Volume 1 A Androphagi
Volume 2 Andros, Sir Edmund Austria
Volume 3 Austria, Lower Bisectrix
Volume 4 Bisharin Calgary
Volume 5 Calhoun, John Caldwell Chatelaine
Volume 6 Châtelet Constantine
Volume 7 Constantine Pavlovich Demidov
Volume 8 Demijohn Edward the Black Prince
Volume 9 Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin Evangelical Association
Volume 10 Evangelical Church Conference Francis Joseph I
Volume 11 Franciscans Gibson, William Hamilton
Volume 12 Gichtel, Johann Georg Harmonium
Volume 13 Harmony Hurstmonceaux
Volume 14 Husband Italic
Volume 15 Italy Kyshtym
Volume 16 L Lord Advocate
Volume 17 Lord Chamberlain Mecklenburg
Volume 18 Medal Mumps
Volume 19 Mun, Adrien Albert Marie de Oddfellows, Order of
Volume 20 Ode Payment of members
Volume 21 Payn, James Polka
Volume 22 Poll Reeves, John Sims
Volume 23 Refectory Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin
Volume 24 Sainte-Claire Deville, Étienne Henri Shuttle
Volume 25 Shuválov, Peter Andreivich Subliminal self
Volume 26 Submarine mines Tom-Tom
Volume 27 Tonalite Vesuvius
Volume 28 Vetch Zymotic diseases
Volume 29 Index List of contributors
Volume 1 of 1922 supp Abbe English History
Volume 2 of 1922 supp English Literature Oyama, Iwao
Volume 3 of 1922 supp Pacific Ocean Islands Zuloaga
Reader's Guide – 1913
Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia
As of 16 December 2014
Section From To
Volume 1:   A  –   Androphagi
Volume 2.1:   Andros, Sir Edmund  –   Anise
Volume 2.2:   Anjar  –   Apollo
Volume 2.3:   Apollodorus  –   Aral
Volume 2.4:   Aram, Eugene  –   Arcueil
Volume 2.5:   Arculf  –   Armour, Philip
Volume 2.6:   Armour Plates  –   Arundel, Earls of
Volume 2.7:   Arundel, Thomas  –   Athens
Volume 2.8:   Atherstone  –   Austria
Volume 3.1:   Austria, Lower  –   Bacon
Volume 3.2:   Baconthorpe  –   Bankruptcy
Volume 3.3:   Banks  –   Bassoon
Volume 3.4:   Basso-relievo  –   Bedfordshire
Volume 3.5:   Bedlam  –   Benson, George
Volume 3.6:   Bent, James  –   Bibirine
Volume 3.7:   Bible  –   Bisectrix
Volume 4.1:   Bisharin  –   Bohea
Volume 4.2:   Bohemia  –   Borgia, Francis
Volume 4.3:   Borgia, Lucrezia  –   Bradford, John
Volume 4.4:   Bradford, William  –   Brequigny, Louis
Volume 4.5:   Bréquigny  –   Bulgaria
Volume 4.6:   Bulgaria  –   Calgary
Volume 5.1:   Calhoun  –   Camoens
Volume 5.2:   Camorra  –   Cape Colony
Volume 5.3:   Capefigue  –   Carneades
Volume 5.4:   Carnegie, Andrew  –   Casus Belli
Volume 5.5:   Cat  –   Celt
Volume 5.6:   Celtes, Konrad  –   Ceramics
Volume 5.7:   Cerargyrite  –   Charing Cross
Volume 5.8:   Chariot  –   Chatelaine
Volume 6.1:   Châtelet  –   Chicago
Volume 6.2:   Chicago, University of  –   Chiton
Volume 6.3:   Chitral  –   Cincinnati
Volume 6.4:   Cincinnatus  –   Cleruchy
Volume 6.5:   Clervaux  –   Cockade
Volume 6.6:   Cockaigne  –   Columbus, Christopher
Volume 6.7:   Columbus  –   Condottiere
Volume 6.8:   Conduction, Electric  –  
Volume 7.1:   Prependix  –  
Volume 7.2:   Constantine Pavlovich  –   Convention
Volume 7.3:   Convention  –   Copyright
Volume 7.4:   Coquelin  –   Costume
Volume 7.5:   Cosway  –   Coucy
Volume 7.6:   Coucy-le-Château  –   Crocodile
Volume 7.7:   Crocoite  –   Cuba
Volume 7.8:   Cube  –   Daguerre, Louis
Volume 7.9:   Dagupan  –   David
Volume 7.10:   David, St  –   Demidov
Volume 8.2:   Demijohn  –   Destructor
Volume 8.3:   Destructors  –   Diameter
Volume 8.4:   Diameter  –   Dinarchus
Volume 8.5:   Dinard  –   Dodsworth
Volume 8.6:   Dodwell  –   Drama
Volume 8.7:   Drama  –   Dublin
Volume 8.8:   Dubner  –   Dyeing
Volume 8.9:   Dyer  –   Echidna
Volume 8.10:   Echinoderma  –   Edward
Volume 9.1:   Edwardes  –   Ehrenbreitstein
Volume 9.2:   Ehud  –   Electroscope
Volume 9.3:   Electrostatics  –   Engis
Volume 9.4:   England  –   English Finance
Volume 9.5:   English History  –  
Volume 9.6:   English Language  –   Epsom Salts
Volume 9.7:   Equation  –   Ethics
Volume 9.8:   Ethiopia  –   Evangelical Association
Volume 10.1:   Evangelical Church Conference  –   Fairbairn, Sir William
Volume 10.2:   Fairbanks, Erastus  –   Fens
Volume 10.3:   Fenton, Edward  –   Finistère
Volume 10.4:   Finland  –   Fleury, Andre
Volume 10.5:   Fleury, Claude  –   Foraker
Volume 10.6:   Foraminifera  –   Fox, Edward
Volume 10.7:   Fox, George  –   France[p.775-p.894]
Volume 10.8:   France[p.895-p.929]  –   Francis Joseph I.
Volume 11.1:   Franciscians  –   French Language
Volume 11.2:   French Literature  –   Frost, William
Volume 11.3:   Frost  –   Fyzabad
Volume 11.4:   G  –   Gaskell, Elizabeth
Volume 11.5:   Gassendi, Pierre  –   Geocentric
Volume 11.6:   Geodesy  –   Geometry
Volume 11.7:   Geoponici  –   Germany[p.804-p.840]
Volume 11.8:   Germany[p.841-p.901]  –   Gibson, William
Volume 12.1:   Gichtel, Johann  –   Glory
Volume 12.2:   Gloss  –   Gordon, Charles George
Volume 12.3:   Gordon, Lord George  –   Grasses
Volume 12.4:   Grasshopper  –   Greek Language
Volume 12.5:   Greek Law  –   Ground-Squirrel
Volume 12.6:   Groups, Theory of  –   Gwyniad
Volume 12.7:   Gyantse  –   Hallel
Volume 12.8:   Haller, Albrecht  –   Harmonium
Volume 13.1:   Harmony  –   Heanor
Volume 13.2:   Hearing  –   Helmond
Volume 13.3:   Helmont, Jean  –   Hernosand
Volume 13.4:   Hero  –   Hindu Chronology
Volume 13.5:   Hinduism  –   Home, Earls of
Volume 13.6:   Home, Daniel  –   Hortensius, Quintus
Volume 13.7:   Horticulture  –   Hudson Bay
Volume 13.8:   Hudson River  –   Hurstmonceaux
Volume 14.1:   Husband  –   Hydrolysis
Volume 14.2:   Hydromechanics  –   Ichnography
Volume 14.3:   Ichthyology  –   Independence
Volume 14.4:   Independence, Declaration of  –   Indo-European Languages
Volume 14.5:   Indole  –   Insanity
Volume 14.6:   Inscriptions  –   Ireland, William Henry
Volume 14.7:   Ireland  –   Isabey, Jean Baptiste
Volume 14.8:   Isabnormal Lines  –   Italic
Volume 15.1:   Italy  –   Jacobite Church
Volume 15.2:   Jacobites  –   Japan (part)
Volume 15.3:   Japan (part)  –   Jeveros
Volume 15.4:   Jevons, Stanley  –   Joint
Volume 15.5:   Joints  –   Justinian I.
Volume 15.6:   Justinian II.  –   Kells
Volume 15.7:   Kelly, Edward  –   Kite
Volume 15.8:   Kite-flying  –   Kyshtym
Volume 16.1:   L  –   Lamellibranchia
Volume 16.2:   Lamennais, Robert de  –   Latini, Brunetto
Volume 16.3:   Latin Language  –   Lefebvre, Pierre François Joseph
Volume 16.4:   Lefebvre, Tanneguy  –   Letronne, Jean Antoine
Volume 16.5:   Letter  –   Lightfoot, John
Volume 16.6:   Lightfoot, Joseph Barber  –   Liquidation
Volume 16.7:   Liquid Gases  –   Logar
Volume 16.8:   Logarithm  –   Lord Advocate
Volume 17.1:   Lord Chamberlain  –   Luqmān
Volume 17.2:   Luray Cavern  –   Mackinac Island
Volume 17.3:   McKinley, William  –   Magnetism, Terrestrial
Volume 17.4:   Magnetite  –   Malt
Volume 17.5:   Malta  –   Map, Walter
Volume 17.6:   Map  –   Mars
Volume 17.7:   Mars  –   Matteawan
Volume 17.8:   Matter  –   Mecklenburg

  • Contemporary opinions of race and ethnicity are included in the Encyclopedia's articles. For example, the entry for "Negro" states, "Mentally the negro is inferior to the white... the arrest or even deterioration of mental development [after adolescence] is no doubt very largely due to the fact that after puberty sexual matters take the first place in the negro's life and thoughts." The article about the American War of Independence attributes the success of the United States in part to "a population mainly of good English blood and instincts".
  • Many articles are now outdated factually, in particular those concerning science, technology, international and municipal law, and medicine. For example, the article on the vitamin deficiency disease beriberi speculates that it is caused by a fungus, vitamins not having been discovered at the time. Articles about geographic places mention rail connections and ferry stops in towns that no longer employ such transport (though this in itself can be useful for those looking for historical information).
  • Even where the facts might still be accurate, new information, theories and perspectives developed since 1911 have substantially changed the way the same facts might be interpreted. For example, the modern interpretation of the history of the Visigoths is now very different from that of 1911; readers of the eleventh edition who want to know about the social customs and political life of the tribe and its warriors are told to look up the entry for their king, Alaric I.
  • Boyles, Denis. Everything Explained That Is Explainable: On the Creation of the Encyclopaedia Britannica's Celebrated Eleventh Edition, 1910-1911 (2016), , online review
  • Online Encyclopedia, Net Industries and its Licensors  – includes original and contributed articles; the originals may have been edited and the collection is subject to a claimed copyright.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica 1911,  – unedited, html version, from scan/ocr of the original text, with interactive alphabetical index, and Google translation into Spanish, Chinese, French, German, Russian, Hindi, Arabic and Portuguese.
  • 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica,  – "Containing 35,820 entries cross-referenced and cross-linked to other resources on". "Copyright Statement[:] these [EB 1911] files are public domain".
  • The Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed. at the Online Books Page of the University of Pennsylvania.


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